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Full text of "The mysteries, pagan and Christian"

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THE MYSTERIES 
PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN 



TR.C 
H 



THE MYSTERIES 

PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN 

BEING THE 

HULSEAN LECTURES FOR 1896-97 



BY 



S. CHEETHAM, D.D, F.S.A. 

ARCHDEACON AND CANON OF ROCHESTER 

HONORARY FELLOW OF CHRIST's COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 

FELLOW AND EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF KING's COLLEGE, LONDON 



iLontion 

MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited 

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
1897 

A II rights reserved 



PREFACE 

From the time of the revival of learning to the 
present day the Mysteries of paganism have 
attracted much notice and been the subjects 
of much wild theorising, as well as of much 
scholarly and careful investigation. According 
to the prepossessions with which they set out, 
different inquirers have arrived at the most 
curiously various results, as is natural where 
the evidence is fragmentary and inconclusive. 

The older view of the pagan Mysteries was, 
that in them was taught an esoteric doctrine, 
better and nobler than that of the popular 
religion, which had been handed down from 
primeval antiquity through a constant succes- 
sion of priests or hierophants, and imparted 
from age to age to select votaries who kept the 
secret of their knowledge. As to the original 
source of this recondite science opinions varied 



VI HULSEAN LECTURES 

widely, some deriving it from a primitive reve- 
lation to all mankind, some from the Old Testa- 
ment, some from the hidden wisdom of India 
or Egypt. Among others, this thesis is main- 
tained by De Sainte Croix in his Recherches 
sur les Mysteres du Paganisme, and by Creuzer 
in his well-known Syinbolik. Our countryman 
Warburton held a peculiar theory, that while 
pagan teachers placed the rewards of good- 
ness in a future world from which no man 
returned to prove their falsity, Moses alone 
had the courage to promise to his followers 
rewards and punishments in this world, in the 
sight of men. Hence he was led to examine 
the promises of future retribution given in the 
Mysteries, and to maintain that they were 
"the legislator's invention, solely for the pro- 
pagation and support of the doctrine of a future 
state of rewards and punishments " — a conten- 
tion in which he has probably had but few 
followers. See his Divine Legation of Moses, 
bk. ii. ch. 4. 

The fancies and false reasoning of the early 
inquirers were rudely shaken by the epoch- 
making work of C. A. Lobeck, which he called 



PREFACE vii 

Aglaopliamus. In this he examines more 
particularly the statements of ancient writers 
with regard to the Eleusinian, the Orphic, and 
the Samothracian Mysteries, but the book is of 
the highest importance for the study of the 
subject generally. In this for the first time 
all the important authorities are criticised and 
interpreted by an acute and thoroughly com- 
petent scholar, and the statements and theories 
of such writers as De Sainte Croix and Creuzer 
(who in this matter largely follows him) are 
shown to be in many cases utterly baseless. 
Access to these societies was, he shows, not 
difficult ; they were open to all on easy condi- 
tions, without distinction of sex or station ; 
their priests were persons endowed with no 
extraordinary knowledge, but, in the case of 
civic Mysteries at least, simple citizens capable 
of discharging the peculiar ritual with which 
alone they were concerned. The notion that 
they propagated a secret doctrine is one 
borrowed from the East, or from modern 
ecclesiastical associations, and is utterly alien 
from classic thought. Lobeck introduced order 
where all had been chaos, and distinguished 

a 2 



vin HULSEAN LECTURES 

where his predecessors had confused ; Greek 
traits were cleared from Oriental, and private 
separated from public rites. The Orphic Mys- 
teries, for instance, which really belonged to 
a kind of secret society, were shown to be 
different in kind from the Eleusinian. It must 
be confessed, however, that Lobeck treats his 
subject in too hard and unsympathetic a spirit, 
tending to ignore the aspirations after higher 
thino^s than those of the common life w^hich 
were after all found in the Mysteries. 

Ottfried Mtiller has in several places ex- 
pressed opinions on the Mysteries by which, 
even where he is not wholly right, he has 
thrown much light on the subject. (See his 
art. "Eleusinia" in Ersch and Gruber's 
Encyclop. i. 33, p. 287 ff., and Griech. Litera- 
tur, i. 25 and 416^.) He finds the ground of 
all mystic rites and associations in the worship 
of the Chthonian deities. It is this worship, he 
thinks, that man delights to express in dim 
symbols and undefined aspirations. This pro- 
position cannot be accepted literally, for other 
deities besides the Chthonian were worshipped 
in Mysteries ; but it does seem to be true that 



PREFACE IX 

the doctrines as to the fate of souls in the 
world to come, which were prominent in the 
Mysteries, were intimately connected with the 
worship of the divinities beneath the earth who 
cause the life of plants and trees. 

What is really known of the Mysteries is 
admirably summarised by L. Preller in his 
articles on " Eleusinia " and " Mysteria " in 
Pauly's Real-Encyclopddie, which I have found 
lucid and trustworthy guides in the intricacies 
of a perplexed subject matter. There are also 
many suggestive observations on the Mysteries 
in his Griechische and Romische Mythologie. 
In the more recent works which I have con- 
sulted I have rarely found reason to depart 
from Preller's conclusions. Excellent brief 
histories of them are found also in Maury's 
Histoire des Religions de la G^'ece antique 
(tom. ii.), and in Dollinger's Heidenthum und 
Judentlmm, pp. lo^ ff., 385 _^, 447, 498. 

Many able writers have discussed the 
question, how far were Christian Institutions 
influenced by the pagan Mysteries. Isaac 
Casaubon, in his Exercitationes (p. 478 ff. 
ed. Genev. 1655), points out that the termin- 



X HULSEAN LECTURES 

ology of the Mysteries was received into the 
Church, and maintains that the form of various 
Christian ceremonies was to some extent deter- 
mined by those already existing in paganism. 
The natural tendency of men to cling to use 
and wont in matters of religion accounts, he 
thinks, for the early Christians adopting well- 
known terms and rites with a changed signifi- 
cance. In the controversies of the seventeenth 
century as to the hypothesis of a system of 
dogmas secretly handed down in the Church 
from the days of our Lord — the so-called " Dis- 
ciplina Arcani " — the precedent of the Mysteries 
was appealed to both by Catholics and Pro- 
testants. One of the ablest of the latter, 
W. E. Tentzel [Exercitationes Seledae, Pars ii. 
Lipsiae, 1692), points out that resemblances 
between pagan and Christian institutions natu- 
rally arose, without any ecclesiastical decree, 
from the previous education and habits of 
proselytes. Our countryman David Clarkson, 
on the other hand, in his Discourse concerning 
Liturgies (1689), held that the Church deliber- 
ately adopted rites resembling those of pagan- 
ism, with a view of attracting those who were 



PREFACE xi 

without. Bingham i^Antiquities, bk. x. ch. 5) 
approached the subject with his usual caution 
and impartiahty, and what he has written is 
still worth consulting. Mosheim {De Rehts 
Christiano7^uin ante Constant, p. 319 ff. ed. 
1753) is as clear and sensible on this matter as 
he generally is on others, differing little in sub- 
stance from Casaubon, who is also followed 
in the main by J. A. Stark {Tralatitia ex Gen- 
tilismo in Religionem Ckristtanam, Regiomont. 

1774. PP- 7-17)- 

In our own time the consideration of the 

influence of the pagan Mysteries on nascent 

Christianity has again become prominent. R. 

Rothe'sessay DeDisciplina y^r<^^?22( Heidelberg, 

1 831) with his article on Arcan-Disciplin in 

W^rzogs Real-Ency clop. (I. 469^ isted.) threw 

much light on the subject. G. von Zezschwitz 

devoted a section of his admirable Christl.- 

Kirchlich. Katechetik (I. 154-209), and also 

subsequently an article in the second edition of 

Y[e.rzogs Real'Encyclop. (I. 637^) to a careful 

examination of the relations between the pagan 

and the Christian Mysteries, whether with 

regard to terminology or to rites. While he 



xii HULSEAN LECTURES 

sees clearly some resemblances, and even 
thinks that Christian forms were deliberately 
taken from rites already existing, he rejects 
emphatically the supposition that the spirit 
which animates Christian rites is in any way 
akin to that of paganism. It was through the 
works of Rothe and Zezschwitz that I was first 
attracted to the comparison of Christian and 
pagan Mysteries, and I have no doubt that 
whatever I have written bears traces of their 
influence, even though I have been unable to 
acknowledge my obligation in detail. 

In our own country the influence of the 
Mysteries on the forms of Christian worship 
has been discussed with great learning and 
ability by the late Dr. Edwin Hatch (Hibberi 
Lectztres, i2)^^, lect. lo). This lecture was, 
unfortunately, left unrevised at the time of the 
author's lamented death. It received the 
loving care of very able friends, but no such 
care can fully make up for the lack of the final 
revision of the author himself, and probably the 
friends of one who is departed do not feel 
themselves at liberty to change the author's 
words, even when they may think them 



PREFACE xiii 

erroneous. The lecture therefore appears 
under serious disadvantages, and might, 
perhaps, claim a certain exemption from 
criticism, I have, however, thought myself 
bound to notice it, because it is in it that the 
Mysteries and their influence on ecclesiastical 
rites have been most prominently brought 
before English readers. 

But the most complete work on the sub- 
ject before us is Gustav Anrich's Das antike 
Mysterie7iweseii in seinein Einfiuss auf das 
Chidstenthimt (Gottingen, 1894), the fulness, 
accuracy, and sound judgment of which leave 
little to be desired. I had already made some 
study of the subject and arrived at most of 
the conclusions stated in the following pages 
before it appeared ; but I have still learned 
much from it, and I desire to express in the 
fullest manner my obligations to it, the more 
so as they are of a nature which can some- 
times not be particularly acknowledged. The 
ReligionsgeschichtlicJie Studien zur Frage der 
Beeinflitsstmg des UixhristentJuuns dttrch das 
antike Mysterienwesen of Georg Wobbermin 
(Berlin, 1896), who controverts some of 



XIV HULSEAN LECTURES 

Anrich's conclusions, I had not seen when 
these Lectures were written, but I have occa- 
sionally referred to him in the Notes. 

In these Lectures I have not attempted to 
give anything like a complete account of pagan 
and Christian Mysteries, or of their relations 
to each other ; my limited space forbade the 
attempt to treat fully so large a subject. What 
I have endeavoured to do is to remove what 
appear to me misconceptions or errors. In the 
first place, I wish to show that the reluctance 
which many excellent persons feel to believe 
that Christianity, as it actually exists in the 
world, derived anything from the paganism in 
the midst of which it arose is not altogether 
reasonable. With regard to the Mysteries in 
particular, I have attempted to show that 
Christian Churches in the midst of paganism 
were of necessity " Mysteries " in the old sense, 
as being societies formed for the sake of a 
worship which was neither domestic nor civic ; 
that while they concealed, as all others con- 
cealed, their most sacred rites from the gaze of 
the profane, their general teaching was perfectly 
public and open ; and that such secrecy as 



PREFACE XV 

existed was not a later accretion, but primitive. 
Finally, I have criticised, I hope not unfairly, 
some statements of recent English writers as 
to the indebtedness of the Church to the ancient 
mystic worship. I am far from denying that 
such indebtedness exists, but it seems in some 
cases to have been pressed further than the 
evidence warrants. 

S. CHEETHAM. 

Rochester, i,th September 1897. 



CONTENTS 

LECTURE I 

THE SEED AND ITS GROWTH 

Phenomena of growth, p. i ; growth of individuals is a formative pro- 
cess, 7 ; growth of societies, including the Christian Church, is 
similar, 8 ; the Church's power of seizing and modifying modes 
of thought and action already existing, 12; does not annihilate 
character, 14 ; Christianity must use popular language with its 
associations, 15 ; pagan art, 19 ; forms of worship, 20 ; but some 
rites practised by Christians are not Christian rites, 21 ; similar 
forms arise from similar circumstances, 22 ; Hellenising of the 
Church, 24 ; Christianity not a mere natural product of forces 
working in the first century, 29 ; failure of pagan philosophy, 31 ; 
work of the Church, 32. 

LECTURE II 

THE RISE OF MYSTERIES 

Family and civic worship in antiquity, 37 ; belief in immortality, 39 ; 
societies for peculiar worship, called Mysteries, 40 ; general pur- 
pose of such societies not a secret, 42 ; to what did initiation 
admit ? 43 ; secrecy required, 44 ; the great earth-deities, Demeter, 
Persephone, and Dionysus, 46 ; Orphic mysticism, 49 ; Eleusis, 
50 ; Egyptian deities, Osiris, Isis, Horus, 52 : associated with 
the departed, 54 ; Scrapis, 55 ; Plutarch, 56 ; Apuleius, 57 ; 
Mithras the Sun-god, 59 ; general characteristics of Mysteries, 61 ; 
yearning for salvation, 63 ; difference between the secret of Mys- 
teries and the secret of Christianity, 65. 



xviii HULSEAN LECTURES 

LECTURE III 

THE SECRET OF THE MYSTERIES AND OF THE CHURCH 

Prevalence of Mysteries in the first century, 71 ; their influence on the 
Church, 72 ; the question is of things, not names, 74 ; use of the 
words (pujLcr/xos and acppayis, 75 ; possible modification of pagan 
rites after the Christian era, 77 ; secrecy of certain rites in the 
Mysteries and in the Church, 78 ; non-Christians excluded from 
the Eucharist from the earliest times, 79 ; the general traits of 
Christian teaching universally known, 81 ; certain formulas kept 
secret, 82 ; classes of candidates for baptism, 90 ; instruction 
given from primitive times, 91 ; no parallel in paganism, 94. 

LECTURE IV 

BAPTISM AND THE HOLY EUCHARIST 

Grades of pagan initiation, 99 ; preliminary purifications, 100 ; 
Mithraic baptism, 103 ; delivery of initiation, 105 ; the symbol 
or watchword, 106; use of lights, 107 ; chaplets, no ; supposed 
origin of Eucharist, no; nothing in Eleusinian Mysteries re- 
sembled the blessing of the Bread and Wine, 112 ; anticipations 
of the Eucharistic feast in paganism, 115; diptychs, 117; 
general tone and influence of Mysteries, 119 ; pagans did not 
always approve of Mysteries, 122; indecent symbols, 124; 
conclusion, 126. 

NOTES 

Conception of life, 131 ; Le Cliyistia)iisi>ie et scs On'gincs, 131 ; 
Characteristics of Gnostic teachers, 133 ; terms used to 
designate Mysteries, 135 ; (j>uTiap.6% and atjipayis, 143 ; Mithraic 
grades, 145 ; cyccon and the contents of the mystic chcsl, 147 ; 
supposed sacrifice of a lamb, 149. 



LECTURE I 



B 



I 



"The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a 
man took, and sowed in his field." — St. Matthew xiii. 31. 

The little seed which we cast into the earth 
contains within itself some power or property 
which man could not give, and which we call 
life/ When it is placed in a proper matrix, it 
draws into itself that which it needs from the 
earth, the rain, the air, and the sun, and 
becomes a plant, perhaps a great tree, in which 
the birds of the air may make their dwellings. 
All the elements of which the tree is formed 
were in existence from the creation of the 
world, for in the physical universe nothing 
perishes, but without the germ of life contained 
in the seed they would never have coalesced 
into the special organism which we call a tree. 
Each tree is a unique production. It does not 



4 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

exactly resemble any other tree, even of the 
same species, but is modified in a thousand 
ways by the circumstances under which it lives 
and grows. The cells and cell walls are formed 
from matter previously existing, which may 
already have formed part of other organisms, 
and is destined again to be resolved. But the 
process of growth is not at all less wonderful 
because the result of growth is composed of 
certain elements well known to us. If the 
same elements were again put together by a 
chemist they would not form a tree. They 
would lack life. When the tree dies, we 
" know not where is that Promethean heat " 
which can its life restore. The maxim " omne 
vivum ex vivo " still remains unshaken. 

Again, we may be sure that a skilful wood- 
man will plant a tree at the season and in the 
soil which are most likely to foster its growth. 
He will not plant an elm in the crag where 
only a pine can cling, nor an oak in the soil 
where only a beech will flourish. He will give 
to each tree its own nurture. 

And there is yet another phenomenon of 
growth which it is well to notice. When many 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 5 

trees are planted in a limited space, it is the 
strongest sapling which rises towards heaven 
and spreads its branches over the earth. The 
surrounding shoots, which started with it in the 
race of life, are dwarfed or even killed by their 
more vigorous brother ; they fail to gain the 
light and air which are necessary to their sub- 
sistence. And the decay of the brushwood 
beneath a spreading and towering tree goes to 
form a better soil to aid the growth of the 
greater one. To the one that hath, more is 
given. 

Further, the early stages of this wondrous 
growth are the most obscure, the least ex- 
plicable. 

When Nature tries her finest touch, 

Weaving her vernal wreath, 
Mark ye how close she veils her round. 
Not to be traced by sight or sound 

Nor soiled by ruder breath ? 

The words of the poet are true. However 
accurately we may observe the conditions 
which are necessary for the development of 
a particular seed, the power which actually 



6 HULSEAN LECTURES i.ect. 

causes growth remains a mystery. The fresh 
green of spring-time is a perpetual wonder. 

Doubtless the processes of growth are what 
we call natural ; they take place in accordance 
with what we call laws of nature. But there 
is no real opposition between God and nature, 
between that which is natural and that which 
is divine. We apply the word "natural" to 
the series of phenomena which take place in 
that portion of the universe in which we have 
been able to trace invariable sequences ; but 
the cause of all these phenomena is the will of 
God, which is the cause of all things ; of the 
things which occur in unvarying sequence, as 
well as of those the laws of which we have not 
been able to trace. And man is himself, in a 
sense, a part of nature. For him also, in this 
world, there is birth, decay, and death. His 
families and tribes, his nations and states, are 
formed under the pressure of laws from which 
he cannot withdraw himself. We express a 
truth when we speak of the laws of human 
nature. Capricious as the impulses of 
individual men may seem, they are yet re- 
strained within certain limits, and we see in 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 7 

history that every nation of men works with 
wonderful steadiness, however unconsciously, 
towards certain ends. It is something more 
than a metaphor when we speak of a state as 
an organism, a body having a life of its own, a 
body capable of growth and dissolution. 

Now, when the Lord likens the kingdom of 
heaven to a seed cast into the ground. He 
teaches us first of all that the Church of Christ 
on earth is a growth ; it is an organism, not a 
finished structure. It did not come on earth, 
like the new Jerusalem of the seer's vision, 
complete and four-square in all its parts, every- 
where flooded with the glory of God ; it began 
with a seed cast upon the earth. The seed is 
the Word of God ; not merely the spoken 
message of the kingdom, but the Son of God 
Himself, the Incarnate Word, in whose life the 
Church lives. And except the seed "fall into 
the ground and die, it abideth by itself alone ; 
but if it die it beareth much fruit." Life rises 
from apparent death. 

And growth is a process which is not 
creative, in the sense of bringing new matter 
into existence, but formative. That which is 



8 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

peculiar to each plant is the mysterious power 
which gives to each seed Its own body, a power 
which no analysis can reach. And something 
of the same kind seems to be found in societies. 
All societies are of course formed of men, men 
of the same flesh and blood, the same nerves 
and brains — differing, indeed, widely in some 
respects, but all showing the great traits of our 
common nature. With whatever superficial 
differences, men are everywhere men. And 
over the communities of mankind a power 
presides of which they are unconscious, caus- 
ing them to assume their varied forms, forms 
changing from age to age, growing, decaying, 
dying. However the spirit which animates 
one nation may differ from that which gives 
life to another, all alike are formed from the 
constant elements of the same humanity. 

And the great divine society, the Church 
of Christ, is, as regards Its outward form, no 
exception to this. Its origin, indeed, admits 
of no comparison at all with that of any other 
society ; the seed from which It sprang is divine 
in a sense absolutely unique and unparalleled ; 
the spirit which animates and guides it differs 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 9 

altogether in kind from that which moves any 
other community ; yet is it formed of the same 
elements as any other, and grows under 
similar laws. The gray lichen on the wall and 
the most gorgeous product of tropical vegetation 
are composed of the same protoplasm, and are 
subject to the same laws of growth, though 
their forms are so widely different. The 
Church of Christ had impressed upon it by its 
Founder a certain form or idea from which it 
cannot deviate, any more than the pine can 
clothe itself in the foliage of the oak ; yet, 
while preserving its essential form, it is in 
many ways modified from age to age. It does 
not annihilate all previously existing forms of 
thought or all previously existing institutions ; 
rather, it imbues them with its own spirit and 
adapts them to its own purposes. 

The early Christian apologists would prob- 
ably have had no difficulty in admitting that 
the Church was influenced by the philosophies 
and the institutions which it found existing. 
This was not, indeed, the problem which 
they treated, but in defending themselves 
against the charge of innovation they re- 



lo HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

cognised in the frankest manner the presence 
of the Word of God in the nations of the 
earth, their philosophies and their moral 
precepts. For them the Gospel of Christ 
existed at least in germ in the days of Abraham 
and of Moses, nay, from the beginning of the 
world ; ^ to them God in Christ was the source 
of all good, at all times and in all places. The 
same Word which wrought in Hebrew prophets 
produced also the truthfulness, righteousness, 
and nobleness which were found among the 
Gentiles ; all who lived in accordance with 
right reason were, so far, Christians, even 
though, like Socrates, they were thought to 
deny their country's gods. The great achieve- 
ments of lawgivers and philosophers were 
not without the Word, however imperfectly 
apprehended. Even to Tertullian, the many 
phrases in which heathens expressed their 
recognition of one God over all were " the 
utterances of a soul naturally Christian " ; and 
we can imagine that if Justin, or Clement, or 
Oriofen had seen such a collection of Christian 
sentiments before Christ as that which in our 
days has been made by Ernest Havet,"' he 



I HULSEAN LECTURES ii 

would have rejoiced to see so conspicuous 
an exhibition of the power of the Word. But 
he would by no means have admitted that 
these scattered sayings, however excellent, were 
the origins of Christianity. The origin of 
Christianity, he would have said, is He who 
founded the great society by and through 
which these excellent sentiments were made 
living and growing truths. Early Christian 
writers abundantly recognise the presence of 
the Word everywhere, and therefore could 
hardly have been shocked if it had been 
pointed out to them that many of their own 
precepts and customs were older than 
Christianity. Even St. Augustine, though he 
once spoke of the virtues of the heathen as 
splendid sins, in the calmer mood of later life 
declared that the very thing which is now 
called the Christian religion was found among 
the ancients, even from the creation of man- 
kind, though it was not until Christ came in 
the flesh that the true religion, which already 
existed, came to be called Christian.^ In later 
times a generation arose which would hardly 
admit any direct operation of the Spirit since 



12 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

the clays of the Apostles, and to this generation 
it was a shock to be told by Tindal, almost in 
the words of St. Augustine, that Christianity 
was as old as the creation. 

And it is indeed impossible to conceive the 
kingdom of God rising and growing in any 
other way than by seizing and modifying the 
modes of thought and action with which it has 
been brought into contact. For there is no 
starting afresh, clear of all prejudices and pre- 
possessions, in the life of man. There is never 
any epoch in which all questions are open. No 
atom of the human race can stand alone ; God 
has willed that man should have a home and a 
country ; that parents and schoolmasters, laws 
and customs, should play an immense part in 
moulding his being. This is a fact which no 
one denies. Even those who contend that the 
mind of a new-born infant is a clear tablet, still 
admit that it is scribbled over with strange 
and varied forms long before he consciously 
encounters the great problems which perplex 
man from age to age. We are all influenced 
by the associations of our earliest years — asso- 
ciations often bound by subtle ties with genera- 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 13 

tions long gone by. To every one of us there 
comes a birthright of traditional influences 
which forms the first provision for our journey 
in the world. And this great body of unwritten 
tradition is continually changed and superseded 
by the thoughts and feelings which a new age 
brings forth around us. Sometimes this change 
is so slow that the thoughts of the son scarcely 
differ from those of the father ; sometimes so 
rapid that between succeeding generations there 
is a great gulf fixed, across which the new looks 
with scorn on the old, the old with sorrow and 
bitterness on the new. As in the growing tree 
old leaves fall and are replaced by new, so in 
every healthy society old opinions become ob- 
solete and new are formed. Change is neces- 
sary for the life of a society as well as of a 
plant or an animal ; but it is well to remember 
the caution of one of "the first of those that 
know," Francis Bacon ^: "It were good that 
men in their innovations would follow the 
example of Time itself, which indeed innovated 
greatly, but quietly, and by degrees scarce to 
be perceived." 

We see then working in human life, on the 



14 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

one side use and wont, custom, habit, which 
render society possible ; on the other, constant 
change, rejection of that which is worn-out 
and useless, adoption of that which is fresh 
and new ; but the new things always grow out 
of the old ; there is never a fresh start inde- 
pendent of that which went before. Probably 
no body of men ever made a more vigorous 
effort to make all things new, to remodel every- 
thing on certain principles without the smallest 
respect for tradition, than the leaders of the 
French Revolution at the end of the last 
century, and yet we know that relics of the 
Old Regime were everywhere built into the 
structure of the new constitution.^ 

When a new society arises, it must in the 
first instance be composed of full-grown men, 
who have their senses exercised to discern good 
and evil. And these full-grown men will be 
already imbued with the thoughts, feelings, and 
habits of their own age. Doubtless the change 
wrought in the hearts of men, the transforma- 
tion of character, by the Holy Spirit, is immense. 
He that sitteth on the throne saith, " Behold, 
I make all things new." They are no vain 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 15 

words when the Apostle tells us, that " if any 
man be in Christ, he is a new creature ; the old 
things have passed away, behold they have 
become new." Yet is this great change not so 
complete and thorough but that old character- 
istics remain. St. Paul and St. John were 
both moved by the Holy Spirit, but it cannot 
be said that their minds have taken the same 
mould ; Clement and Origen, Tertullian and 
Cyprian, all served the same Lord, all received 
the same Spirit, all cherished the same hope, 
and yet the mind trained in Alexandrian philo- 
sophy apprehends the message in a very 
different way from that in which it is received 
by a mind formed in African schools of rhetoric 
and courts of law. 

It is very obvious, though it seems some- 
times to have been forgotten, that the Church 
of necessity adopted at any rate the language 
of those to whom it brought its message. The 
first preachers of the Gospel must use words 
familiar to those whom they addressed. In 
order to be " understanded of the people " they 
must use popular language, and the New 
Testament is a witness that they did so. They 



i6 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

spoke the Greek language which they heard 
around them, as we find it preserved in the 
works of the philosophers, historians, and 
comedians both of their own time and of that 
which went before.^ The list of words which, 
before the apostolic writings, are found in the 
Septuagint only is but a short one, and does not 
include many of the most characteristic terms 
of Christianity. Now words are stamped with 
the philosophies, the religions, the superstitions, 
and the customs of those throuQrh whose mouths 
they have passed. But a word may be, and 
most words are, so worn by use that the 
original image and superscription are no longer 
visible except to skilled investigators ; they 
pass current without a thought of the mint 
whence they were issued. Their present value 
in mental commerce is the only thing con- 
sidered. This is so obvious that I should 
scarcely think it necessary to mention it were 
it not that it seems to have been ignored by 
some earnest and able inquirers. We shall 
have occasion to notice presently how often the 
assumption has been made that when the early 
Christians adopted a word they must needs 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 17 

have adopted also the philosophy or the cere- 
mony which the word was originally employed 
to designate. And yet no assumption could be 
more fallacious. That Christians adopted from 
the first many expressions derived from pagan 
philosophy or pagan ceremonies is certain, but 
in considering these it is well to bear in mind 
the words of one of the ablest investigators 
of pagan religion under the Empire, Gaston 
Boissier' : "When the Church formed its lan- 
guage it did, no doubt, create many new expres- 
sions, but it also adopted many which seemed 
made for it by the philosophers of the time. 
In reality all these verbal resemblances are of 
little importance. Similarities of idea appear 
at first more serious, but they are often only 
apparent, and a more careful examination will 
show that at the bottom there is never a com- 
plete agreement between the two doctrines." 
What Boissier says of the terms which Chris- 
tianity borrowed from pagan philosophy is, I 
believe, quite as true of those which it borrowed 
from pagan religion. 

Christians of the first days had no scruple 
whatever in adopting words which had been 

c 



1 8 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

used in the service of paganism. Take one of 
the most sacred of Christian terms, S(OT7]p, 
Saviour. This was not only in common use 
among pagans, but it was distinctly associated 
with pagan worship. It was a constant epithet 
of Zeus and other tutelary deities ; in ancient 
Greece perhaps hardly a banquet was held in 
which the name of Zeus the saviour was not 
invoked over the third goblet ; it had been the 
distinctive name of more than one Egyptian 
king ; grateful cities added the title " Saviour " 
to the name of an emperor who had done them 
some service.^ None the less did Christians 
avail themselves of the word to designate the 
true Saviour of the world ; and it would be 
mere folly to suppose that in using the word 
they transferred to the divine Son the attri- 
butes of a pagan deity or a pagan sovereign. 
Christians early adopted the pagan names of 
the days of the week, which we retain in a 
Teutonic form even to this day ; but who 
supposes that in appropriating these they 
adopted also the Chaldean astrology from 
which they are derived ? They no more 
scrupled to call a day Mercury's or Saturn's 



1 HULSEAN LECTURES 19 

than to speak of a man as Apollos or Artemas. 
Who, when he uses the word " January," thinks 
of the old Itahan deity from whom the name is 
derived, or, when he mentions February, of the 
great festival of expiation among the Romans ? 
"Verba notionum tesserae," said Bacon; words 
are counters for mental conceptions ; what their 
connotation is must be ascertained by other 
considerations than those of mere etymology or 
original usage. A word in its time plays many 
parts, and it is not always easy to ascertain 
what it represents in a particular instance. 
There is, perhaps, no department of Christian 
archaeology in which verbal fallacies have been 
more frequent than in the discussion of the 
relation between the Mysteries of paganism and 
the Mysteries of the Christian Church. 

And Christianity adopted to a large extent 
pagan art. So far as regards style and manner 
of treatment this was, in fact, matter of necessity, 
for when a Christian of the earliest age wished 
to place some memorial of a friend departed, or 
to decorate a place of worship, he could find no 
workmen but such as had been trained in pagan 
schools. But the adoption of pagan art went 



20 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

beyond this. In the ancient Church the figure 
of the Good Shepherd occupied much the same 
place which in the Middle Ages was taken by 
the crucifix. The resemblance of the shepherd 
bearing a lamb to the Hermes Criophoros of 
the pagans has often been noticed, and is, I 
believe, scarcely denied. The fabled Orpheus 
became in the declining days of paganism the 
centre of a mystic system of teaching and 
worship ; yet this did not prevent the early 
Church from seizing the all-wise, all-attractive 
singer and teacher as a type of the Lord Him- 
self. And so in many other instances. 

And there can be little doubt that the forms 
of Christian worship were in some degree 
influenced by the forms already existing- when 
Christ was first preached. A pagan who had 
been accustomed all his life to kneel in prayer, 
or to stand with expanded arms in the temple 
of his deity, would probably continue to do so 
when he had learned to worship God in Christ. 
So long as the accustomed forms were in them- 
selves innocent, what need to deviate from 
them ? That much passed over in this way 
from paganism to Christianity can scarcely be 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 21 

doubted ; and as it has come to be alleged of 
late years that the pagan Mysteries contributed 
much, not only to the outward form of Christian 
worship, but even to its conception, it seems 
worth while to attempt to examine how far this 
allegation is true. To this, therefore, I propose 
to devote the remaining lectures of this course. 
But before proceeding to details there are still 
a few general principles to which I desire to 
direct attention. 

When we come to speak of the adoption by 
the Church of Institutions, customs, or rites 
which already existed in paganism, we must 
bear in mind that rites which Christians practise 
are not necessarily Christian rites. Even to 
this day, for instance, rites are practised in the 
harvest-field in almost every part of Europe 
which can be traced to an age long before 
Christianity.'^ But no canon of the Church 
sanctions them ; on the contrary the ceremonies 
of the Rogation Days, when the blessing of 
God is asked on the growing corn, w^ere prob- 
ably Intended to supersede them. The popular 
observances of May -day and Christmas are 
vastly more ancient than the ecclesiastical 



22 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

services of those days. They are neither 
Christian nor un-Christian, but simply a part of 
our inheritance as children of the great Aryan 
race. Our forefathers continued practices to 
which they had grown accustomed, regarding 
them as innocent in themselves and compatible 
with their Christian profession. When such 
rites were adopted by Christian people they 
had probably already lost their original signifi- 
cance. 

Again, when an institution arises naturally 
from the circumstances of the society in which 
it exists, there is no need to suppose that it is 
derived from a similar custom in another society 
where it arose equally naturally. For instance, 
there is no need to derive the Christian sermon 
or homily from the harangues of the sophists ; 
for wherever there are assemblies of men there 
is oratory, and the style of this oratory is 
determined by the culture and mental attitude 
of the speaker and the hearers ; the spiritual 
force and spontaneity of such addresses vary 
with the preacher. It does so now, and doubt- 
less has done so in all ages of the Church. 
There is no generic difference between "pro- 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 23 

phesying " and " preaching." An oration of St. 
John Chrysostom is much more elaborate than 
the homily which we call the Second Epistle of 
Clement, but are we to say that it is on that 
account less spiritual ? Who would deny the 
gifts of the Spirit to one who, in spite of the 
shrinking of a sensitive nature, could boldly 
rebuke vice and patiently suffer for the truth as 
Chrysostom did ? 

Again, we need not shrink from admitting 
that in the form of their election of Church 
officers the early Christians may have been 
influenced by the methods of election which 
they saw everywhere in the Empire. But there 
is no need to suppose deliberate imitation ; to 
do so is to frame a gratuitous hypothesis. For 
their forms were such as, under whatever names, 
are common to all elections. At every election 
some one must preside, who must receive 
nominations of candidates and the votes of the 
electors ; some one must declare upon whom 
the choice of the electors has fallen ; and if the 
president Is not himself the person who can 
admit to office him who has been chosen, he 
must return the names of the elected to the 



24 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

person or the body which has that power. 
This was the course of proceeding in civil and 
also in ecclesiastical elections, but it is not 
necessary to suppose that the latter was an 
imitation of the former, because from the nature 
of things an election could hardly take place 
in any other way. 

And as to the Hellenising of the Church 
during the first three centuries. During that 
period the whole educated world within the 
Empire was Hellenised, and as the Church 
drew into itself larger numbers of the cultured 
class, it shared more and more in Hellenic 
culture. The form of its literature and its 
theology was changed. It could not with- 
draw itself from that which we have grown 
accustomed to call the Zeit-geist or Time- 
spirit. But that it received a specially Hellenic 
tinge from the grandiose follies of Gnosticism 
it is difficult to believe. ^° If the Greek g-enius 
is such as a master of the subject ^^ has painted 
it ; if it loved, as he assures us that it did, " to 
see things as they really are, to discern their 
meanings and adjust their relations " ; if it 
followed boldly in the way where reason led ; — 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 25 

then is Gnosticism, propounding explanations 
of the phenomena of the universe which rest 
entirely on authority unsupported by reason, 
wide as the poles asunder from Hellenism. It 
belongs to the speculations of those Eastern 
nations which — again to quote Professor Butcher 
— "loved to move in a region of twilight, con- 
tent with that half-knowledge which stimulates 
the religious sense." That Gnosticism exercised 
a great influence on the development of the 
early Church no one who has studied the 
subject will deny, but that influence can scarcely 
have been directly in favour of Hellenism. It 
would probably be truer to say that Greek 
dialectic was developed within the Church in 
opposition to the Oriental figments of the 
Gnostic teachers. The early defenders of the 
Church were perfectly confident that right 
reason was on their side, and they used it to 
destroy the gorgeous illusions of their opponents. 
This contest very largely influenced the develop- 
ment of Christian theology. But even without 
it, we can hardly doubt that a theology would 
have been evolved not materially different from 
that which actually arose. Some kind of 



26 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

theology there needs must be. A system which 
claims to deal authoritatively with man's destiny 
and his relation to the Deity must have some 
struggle with systems of philosophy which 
attempt the same task ; and such a contest 
must be fought on common ground and with 
the same kind of weapons. The methods of 
the rabbis would be ineffectual against men 
trained in Athenian schools. And further, it 
is scarcely possible for a man to receive 
momentous truths into his mind without some 
attempt to give reasons for them, to systematise 
them, to allot them their place in the general 
history of human thought. These natural 
instincts, working upon the solemn and all- 
important subject-matter, the Incarnation of 
the Son of God for the redemption and renewal 
of man, produced Christian theology ; and as 
the culture of the whole educated class of the 
Empire in the early ages of Christianity was, 
directly or indirectly, Hellenic, it took of 
necessity Hellenic forms. It would have been 
strange, indeed, if those who wrought at the 
great structure of Christian theology had stood 
within a charmed circle into which no breath 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 27 

of the time-Spirit could penetrate. There was 
in fact no such seclusion. 

We are thankful to know that the work of 
the Holy Spirit is not limited to the Christian 
Church ; Gentiles also have uttered words in 
accordance with the mind of Christ, — Gentiles 
also have earnestly contended for righteous- 
ness and self-control, even when they doubted 
of judgment to come. No inquiry is more 
momentous and more interestino- than that 
which attempts to search out and discriminate 
the influences which have made Christianity 
what it is. Such questions as these — What 
ground was provided for Christianity ? What 
already existing views and teachings could it 
draw into itself, purify and glorify ? What 
circumstances prepared the way for it, facilitated 
and furthered its extension ? How did paganism 
react upon Christianity ? — require an answer. 
And if we have to say, that the circumstances 
of the time were very favourable to the spread 
of Christianity in the first ages of its existence ; 
that pagan training and pagan customs did 
exert considerable influence on the outward 
form of the kingdom of God on earth, our 



28 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

faith in its divine origin is in no way shaken. 
We do but the more venerate the wisdom and 
power of the Almighty God who so ruled 
what we call the natural course of this world 
that it furthered the growth of His spiritual 
kingdom. 

The Church of Christ has, in fact, shown a 
wonderful power of absorbing and assimilating 
thoughts and institutions already existing in 
the world. But there is, of course, a limit to 
this process ; it cannot adopt everything that 
it finds. For instance, the Eucharistic feast 
at Corinth described by St. Paul, probably 
differed little in outward form from the epavo^, 
the common meal of a pagan society to which 
each member brought a contribution. There 
was no reason why such a festival should not 
be Christianised ; it contained nothincj in its 
nature profane or un-Christian. But it was 
impossible for a Christian to take part in a 
sacrificial feast in honour of the fancied super- 
natural beings of heathendom ; this would have 
been a breach of his allegiance to Christ. It 
was, to say the least, inexpedient for a Christian 
knowingly to eat meat which had formed part 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 29 

of a victim, even though it was sold in the 
pubhc shambles, and was commonly partaken 
of without a thought of the purpose which it 
had served. Some rites were too deeply 
tainted with paganism to be adopted into the 
service of Christianity. 

We are sometimes assured that Christianity 
itself is a mere natural product of various moral 
and intellectual forces working in the Empire, 
more particularly from the time of Augustus to 
that of Marcus Aurelius. Now, suppose we 
grant that many fragments of the Sermon on 
the Mount are to be found in the Manual of 
Epictetus or the Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius, 
the fact has still to be explained, that neither 
Epictetus nor even Marcus Aurelius, armed 
as he was with supreme power, has done 
more than provide edifying and interesting 
books for a few students, while Christ and His 
disciples, starting on their course in poverty 
and weakness, from an obscure corner, have in 
fact conquered the most powerful, the most 
productive, the most progressive races of the 
world. This is a fact of which historical 
science requires an explanation. We need 



30 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

not hesitate to admit that the growth of 
the Christian Church was promoted by the 
state of society in which it first appeared ; the 
Lord of the universe caused the seed to be 
sown in soil prepared for it. How could it be 
otherwise? So far as we are able to judge, 
the faith would have spread less rapidly in the 
republican days when political life absorbed all 
the thoughts of a free citizen than it did in 
the time when those "obstinate questionings 
of sense and outward things," those "blank 
misgivings of a creature moving about in 
worlds not realised " asserted themselves, and 
men wandered in the mazes of painful thought. 
This we may admit ; but this is a very different 
thing from saying that the forces working in 
society produced Christianity. The fact is 
that the characteristic teaching of Christianity 
was something of which paganism knew 
nothing, and which it could hardly comprehend. 
St. Paul, we know, did not think of the 
heathen as without God ; but in his epistles 
how much do we find that could by any possi- 
bility have been drawn from ethnic sources ? 
Some moral precepts we may find identical 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 31 

with some in Seneca or in other Stoical writ- 
ings, but the root of the matter, the being " in 
Christ," is altogether unknown in paganism. 
In truth, when Christ came the mind of weary 
paganism seemed to be worn out. A last 
desperate attempt to reach the alienated divine 
life was made by Neo-Platonism ;^- it failed, 
and ancient philosophy sank into complete 
exhaustion. Nothing fresh and original was 
produced until European thought had been 
thoroughly leavened by Christianity. Christi- 
anity, far from crushing philosophy, gave it a 
new life. We may perhaps illustrate what 
took place in the world by the history of a 
single soul. When St. Augustine was an 
ardent youth of nineteen the reading of Cicero's 
Hortensius made him conscious of the serious- 
ness of life, and of the folly and vanity of the 
course which he was pursuing ; but it was not 
until he read, in deep emotion and after long 
struggles, the words in which St. Paul bids us 
put on the Lord Jesus Christ, that the clouds 
were dispersed and the true light shone into his 
soul. So in the world at large, the old reli- 
gions and philosophies had opened the eyes 



32 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

of many a soul to see how vain and unsatis- 
fying was the pursuit of mere pleasure and 
amusement, wealth and power ; but Christ 
alone could teach them that knowledge of God 
which is eternal life, and so give them rest 
and peace. 

And what explanation is there of the growth, 
the assimilating power of the Church of Christ, 
except that it has a gift from on high, some- 
thing which man could not give, which enables 
it to draw into its wondrous organisation the 
moral and spiritual good things which are 
already extant in the world, — a ferment, work- 
ing so as to make from poor and feeble elements 
a mass heaving with spiritual life, containing 
the true food of the human soul ? And the 
great tree of the Lord's planting has brought 
forth much fruit from age to age. True, the 
life of the Church is not yet pure and perfect ; 
the tree produces not only good fruit, meet for 
the Master of the garden when He cometh 
seeking it, but withered and cankered growths, 
fit only to be again resolved with a view to new 
life ; it needs constantly the stern yet merciful 
hand of the keeper of the ground to clear away 



I HULSEAN LECTURES 33 

the evil for the sake of the good. Yet, with 
whatever shortcomings, the tree Hves and 
grows and bears much fruit. Unfold the 
long record of the lives and acts of those who 
have served Christ. Even in those whom we 
agree to call in a special sense " saints " we find 
errors, and even what the world calls follies ; 
but with all this, how much pure aspiration 
after the heavenly life, how much self-sacrifice, 
how much devotion to the good of others, how 
much eagerness to serve the Lord who re- 
deemed and sanctified them ! And not only 
do we find such traits as these in the many 
volumes which record achievements such as the 
world would not willingly let die, but every- 
where and in every age there have been thou- 
sands and millions of hidden saints whose 
names are written in the Book of Life. A man 
must have been very unfortunate if in the 
course of his days he has not met some in 
whom he could trace the lineaments of Christ 
— something of the sweetness, gentleness, 
unselfishness, and devotion to the service of 
the Father of which the Great Exemplar is the 
Lord Himself. While these are plainly seen we 

D 



34 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. i 

need not fear lest the Church of Christ should 
become wholly worldly and pagan. Such light 
as this is not overcome of darkness, such life 
as this is not conquered by death. 



LECTURE II 



II 



"And yet God left not himself without witness, in that he did good, 
and gave you from heaven rains and fruitful seasons, filling your 
hearts with food and gladness." — Acts xiv. 17, 

These words, in which St. Paul points to man's 
constant recognition of supernatural powers, 
causing the growth of the corn and the fruits 
by which he is fed, may well introduce the con- 
sideration of the question, What association of 
thought induced primitive man to ascribe to 
the deities of vegetation the care of the souls of 
the dead ? 

Our classical studies have probably made us 
more familiar with pagan mythology than with 
pagan worship, and yet worship played a part 
in the ancient pagan city even greater, probably, 
than it did in a city of the Middle Ages, Every 
family, every city had its own gods, its own 
ritual. But the worship paid to these gods was 
not what we understand by religion. It did 



38 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

not attempt to open to the eager spirit "a road 
to bring us daily nearer God." It was merely 
a curious medley of traditional rites and prac- 
tices, the real meaning of which had often been 
lost. When we use the word "religion" we 
think of a creed, of definite teaching about God 
and man, and the relations of man to God ; of 
solemn services, in which we join with heart 
and mind, knowing whom we worship. The 
civic and family worship of the classic pagans 
implied none of these things. It was only the 
ceremonies which were regarded as important ; 
to observe them was an imperious necessity, 
for without them the family or the State could 
not flourish. Certain formal observances were 
due to the ancestors of a family, to the gods 
and heroes of a State ; these must be paid, not 
only from a feeling of duty and reverence, but 
to render the objects of worship friendly and 
helpful. As Marquardt says, nothing could be 
less like a Christian Church than a pagan 
temple.^^ 

But family and civic worship was by no 
means the whole of ancient reliction. In the 
ancient as in the modern world man felt the 



n HULSEAN LECTURES 39 

need of some explanation of the wonders and 
perplexities in the midst of which he found 
himself. To explain these was the task of 
philosophy ; but the teachings of philosophy 
were of necessity accessible only to an audience 
which, however fit, was few. There were 
thoughts in the unlettered also which were not 
satisfied by the traditional forms of the family 
and the State. There was the inextinguish- 
able need for something to rouse the soul to an 
ecstasy of religious emotion such as the ordi- 
nary ceremony, public or domestic, did not pro- 
duce. In particular, if we look back on the 
traditions of the great Aryan race to which v/e 
belong, we find that our forefathers never 
regarded the few years which we pass on earth 
as the whole of life. Long before the rise of 
philosophy men believed in some kind of 
renewed existence after death. ^"^ And if some- 
thing of the sentient being survived, it was 
inevitable to ask, 

What worlds or what vast regions hold 
The unbodied soul that hath forsook 
Her mansion in this fleshly nook ? 

Do all endure the same fate, or are there 



40 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

distinctions of weal and woe in the unseen 
world ? If so, can man do anything to secure 
a portion among the blessed ? Can he help 
to bless his brethren who have departed ? Are 
there lustral waters, are there charms and 
soothing words which can purify the soul and 
render it fit to bear company with those whom 
the gods love ? Such thoughts as these gave 
rise to a multitude of societies which attempted 
to satisfy man's need of religious emotion, 
together with his longing for a feeling of 
brotherhood in religion, and to give him hope 
of a state of bliss after his departure from the 
earthly life. These societies may conveniently 
be designated Mysteries.^^ But when we use 
this word we must oruard ourselves from the 
associations which in the course of two thou- 
sand years have gathered round it. The word 
Mystery was the name of a religious society 
founded, not on citizenship or on kindred, but 
on the choice of its members, for the practice 
of rites by which, it was believed, their happi- 
ness might be promoted both in this world 
and in the next. The Greek word ixvary'ipiov 
does not, of its own force, imply anything, in 



II HULSEAN LECTURES 41 

our sense of the word, mysterious, that is to 
say, obscure or difficult to comprehend. That 
which it connotes is rather something which 
can only be known on being imparted by some 
one already in possession of it, not by mere 
reason and research which are common to all. 
It may be, in itself, of the simplest nature. 
In fact, from the nature of the case, the special 
disclosure made in a Mystery must have been 
of such a nature that an ordinary man could 
understand it, or at least suppose himself to 
understand. It was for ordinary intelligences 
that Mysteries were formed. Lobeck ^*' defines 
Mysteries as "those sacred rites which took 
place, not in the sight of all or in the full light 
of day and at public altars, but either in the 
night, or within closed sanctuaries, or in remote 
and solitary places." And he divides them 
into three classes. First, civic Mysteries, such 
as the Eleusinian at Athens, which were in 
the charge of public officials ; second, fanatical 
rites, like those of the Great Mother and of 
Bacchus, whether such as were recognised by the 
State, or private celebrations such as those of 
the Orphic votaries ; third, occasional functions 



42 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

performed on behalf of private persons for the 
purpose of appeasing the manes or of averting 
evil. This seems a fair division, except that 
we must bear in mind that Lobeck's second 
class includes rites to which we should scarcely 
apply the epithet fanatical. The worship of 
I sis or of Mithras have scarcely anything in 
common with the noisy dance of the Curetes or 
the " riot of the tipsy Bacchanals." 

The great purpose of the mystic rites seems 
to have been known to others beside the 
initiated.^'' Those who presented themselves 
for initiation knew of what kind was the 
illumination which they were to look for. The 
teaching of those in Eleusis, for instance, as 
to the greater blessedness of the initiated in 
the under- world, was known to all Athens ; 
it excited the imagination of the graver poets, 
and was brought on the stage by comedians. 
Still, none but the initiated, the instructed, 
could be present at the services, just as in the 
ordinary national processions and sacrifices 
none but members of the nation could take 
part. The great question is, to what did 
initiation admit ? Aristotle ^^ assures us that 



II HULSEAN LECTURES 43 

what men gained in the Mysteries was not 
definite instruction, but impressions and emo- 
tions. This is said of the Eleusinian Mysteries, 
but it probably applies more or less to all. 
And we know that the culminating point of 
initiation was admission to a spectacle in which, 
amid a blaze of light, were probably exhibited, 
together with the histories of certain gods, the 
horrors which awaited the wicked, and the 
blessedness of the pious in the Elysian fields.^'* 
The rewards and punishments of a future state 
were not first revealed to the initiated when 
they entered the sacred hall, but they received 
a new vividness and caused a fresh emotion. 
The feelings of the newly-admitted votary may 
have been, in fact, not very unlike those of one 
who, already acquainted with the general teaching 
of the Christian faith, is brought into a stately 
church where sights and sounds combine to 
surround old truths with a halo of sanctity 
and majesty which the bare recital of them 
could not give.^° If this is the true conception, 
that which was imparted to the candidate for 
initiation, as a preliminary to the spectacle, 
can hardly have been more than the exhibition 



44 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

of sacred objects,"^ with perhaps some directions 
for his conduct in the yet unknown chamber, 
and for some responses which he was to make 
in the service. 

It is even uncertain whether the address 
of the hierophant contained any injunction of 
secrecy. The herald's proclamation for silence 
almost .certainly refers rather to the awful silence 
to be observed durino- the celebration than to 
any reserve practised by the worshippers. 
Pausanias, in the second century a.d.,^" feared 
to reveal what he had learned within the 
Eleusinian temple. "What took place within 
the temple," he says, "the dream forbade me 
to write, and in any case it is unbecoming for 
the uninitiated even to inquire about things 
from the sight of which they are restrained." 
The ground of his reticence is not anything 
which he heard in the temple, but a dream, 
and the natural shrinking which a man feels 
from disclosing to unsympathetic inquirers 
matters for which he himself feels awe and 
reverence. Only an ill-bred person would 
trouble the initiated with inquiries on so 
delicate a matter. Worship in ancient times 



II HULSEAN LECTURES 45 

seems, in fact, to have been so universally 
regarded as the privilege of a special body 
of worshippers that these were generally re- 
luctant to reveal the details of it to those who 
were without. Nevertheless it seems probable 
that the mysteries which overspread the Empire 
in its later days much more resembled secret 
societies than the comparatively open rites of 
Eleusis did. 

It is not necessary for our purpose to notice 
the forms of worship — if we may call them by 
that name — which were mainly orgiastic ; the 
end of which was rather to produce violent 
excitement than to impart knowledge or to 
elevate the soul. It is only with the graver 
Mysteries, in which the fate of the disembodied 
soul was the main object of contemplation, that 
the ceremonies of the Christian Church can 
possibly be compared ; and of these only those 
which flourished in the Empire at the time of 
the first preaching of Christianity immediately 
concern us. 

A response to their anxious questions as to 
the destiny of the soul men sought especially 
in the worship of the deities who were thought 



46 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

to give life to the plants and trees, and of the 
sun who every day, with his victorious beams, 
drives out the darkness. 

As man gazed about him in the universe, the 
movements of the sun, and the moon, and the 
stars always attracted his awe-struck wonder ; 
and not less the phenomena of birth and 
growth, decay and death. With an apparently 
inexhaustible fecundity, the generations of 
plants and animals succeed each other on the 
surface of the earth and to the earth return. 
Even man himself was vaguely thought of in 
primitive times as having sprung originally from 
the earth into which his bodily frame was in 
the end resolved. In an age when the general 
conception of nature had not been formed, men 
referred what we should call natural pheno- 
mena to the only source of power and guidance 
which they could conceive, beings of the same 
kind as themselves, but of higher and greater 
faculties. Every natural process had its appro- 
priate deity. There appears almost everywhere 
among men at a certain stage of culture the 
worship of tree-spirits and corn-spirits,"^ con- 
ceived either as existing in vegetation, or at 



II HULSEAN LECTURES 



47 



any rate imparting to it the force by which it 
grows. The earth subjugated, ploughed, and 
sown by the hand of man, is typified in the 
myth of the two great goddesses, Demeter 
and Persephone,'"^ the holy and awful queens, 
Demeter ^^ is especially 0e(7/Ao^opo?, the goddess 
of law and order ; not only of the regular 
course of culture which brings the harvest year 
by year, but of the settled, orderly life of the 
family and the community. Persephone is the 
child and indispensable companion of Demeter, 
who, when she is lost, seeks her sorrowing, as 
Aphrodite seeks her Adonis, and Isis her Osiris. 
For the winter season she has to endure the 
loss of her daughter, only to find her again in 
spring, when the fields are green with the 
fresh young blades, and varied with the bright 
petals of the flowers. But Demeter and 
Persephone were not only corn-spirits ; they 
became also, in an age beyond record, deities 
of the lower world, ruling over the shades of 
the dead. 

And again Dionysus was worshipped as the 
power which causes the sap to rise in the trees, 
so that they put forth leaves and blossoms and 



48 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

fruit. The vine with its clusters of grapes, 
whence springs the wine that maketh glad the 
heart of man, was his greatest but by no means 
his only work. No worship represents in so 
lively traits as that of Dionysus the pantheism 
and hylozoism of primitive peoples ; no worship 
gave rise to so rich a growth of imagery and 
symbolism. As the god of the fruit-tree and 
the vine, which indicate that man has risen 
above barbarism, he is a kindly and gentle 
deity, ennobling man and man's life, delighting 
in peace and plenty, bestowing wealth on his 
worshippers. Spring-time and vintage were 
naturally the periods of his triumph, when his 
praises were sung with eager exultation on the 
hills and in the valleys of a sunny clime. 
From such festivals, in the bright air of Attica, 
sprang not only the dithyrambus, but the 
gorgeous tragedy and frolic comedy which have 
delighted the world for more than two thousand 
years. As a deity of ordered cultivation, he 
stands opposed to the rude chaotic powers of 
wild nature. In winter, when the trees are 
bare and no fruit hangs on the bough, these 
anarchic forces seemed to have gained the 



II HULSEAN LECTURES 49 

victory. Dionysus is storm-beaten, torn, and 
tortured ; but if he flies from his enemies, he 
rises again to new Hfe and activity. Festivals 
to celebrate his resurrection were held by 
women, among the mountains, in the night, 
every third year about the time when the sun 
turns again towards the northern fields. And 
he belongs to the world below as well as to the 
world above. Under the name of lacchos, the 
brother or the bridegroom of Persephone, he 
had his part with her and Demeter in the 
secret rites of Eleusis. It was this Dionysus, 
the deity suffering and transformed, at once 
evanescent and everlasting, dying and springing 
again to life, that was the chief divinity of the 
poets and mystagogues of the sect called 
Orphic, in whose Mysteries the soul and its 
fortunes when it is released from the bands of 
clay become the prominent and characteristic 
objects. The aim and end of its initiations is 
to procure for the soul entrance into ever- 
lasting bliss, to prevent it from re-entering into 
the never-ending series of forms of earthly life 
to which it might otherwise be destined. 
There is a striking resemblance in this point 

E 



50 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

between the doctrines of the Orphic teachers 
and the Indian. Brahmins and Buddhists 
aHke beHeve that man is destined to undergo 
a series of births in new forms, unless by 
asceticism and self-renunciation he escapes from 
the cycle. 

Demeter, Persephone, and Dionysus were 
worshipped in the famous Mysteries which take 
their name from the little town of Eleusis. 

These Mysteries were, however, at Athens, 
not merely the concern of a private society 
of votaries, but were what we may fairly 
call civic. They were, like other religious 
solemnities, under the charge of the king- 
archon, and the great temple at Eleusis 
[avuKTopov or reXeaTijpiov) in which they were 
celebrated belonged to the State. Almost the 
whole population of Athens appears to have 
been initiated, for initiation, not birth, was 
still the qualification for admission. And the 
publicity with which portions of the rite were 
celebrated, with the watchfulness of the State 
over them, preserved these solemnities in at 
least comparative purity. We do not find that 
they were charged, as many others were, with 



II IIULSEAN LECTURES 51 

promoting immorality. The rites of Eleusis 
seem to have constituted the most vital portion 
of Attic religion, and always to have retained 
something of awe and solemnity. Originally a 
purely local cult, they spread to the Greek 
colonies in Asia as part of the constitution of 
the daughter states, where they seem to have 
exercised a considerable influence both on the 
populace and on the philosophers. They 
reached Alexandria, the great mixing-bowl of 
East and West, in the later days of the 
Ptolemies ; they were known at Rome in the 
days of Ovid, and legalised under Claudius. 
They were thus known and potent in the great 
centres of the ancient world, while they con- 
tinued to flourish in their ancient home. It was 
not until the fourth century that the temple at 
Eleusis was destroyed by the Goths at the 
instigation of the monks who followed the hosts 
of Alaric.-' 

Such were the cults of the earth-deities which, 
whatever their origin, are most familiar to us 
in the forms which they assumed among the 
Hellenic peoples. But the deities of the ancient 
land of mystery, Egypt, made widespread 



52 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

conquests in the Empire at the expense of the 
old Greek and Roman divinities.'^' Even at an 
earher day Greece itself had gone to school 
in Egypt, and to the wearied and perplexed 
subjects of the Empire the Egyptian teaching, 
with its claim to primeval antiquity and inspired 
wisdom, came with a solemnity and authority 
which was altogether lacking in the popular 
mythology. 

It is not easy to decipher, under the accre- 
tions of later ages, the original significance of 
the great Egyptian triad, Osiris, Isis, Horus."^ 
Yet it is tolerably clear that in them also are 
represented the constant dissolution and re- 
organisation which go on for ever in nature. 
Set, the destructive principle, tears to pieces 
the body of Osiris and scatters the fragments 
over the earth. Isis, at once sister and wife of 
the victim, gathers them together and restores 
them to life. From Isis and Osiris springs 
the child Horus. Thus the myth appears to 
represent the perpetual decay and growth, life 
and death, which are everywhere present in the 
world. The ears of corn with which the I sis- 
statues of the Roman period are often crowned 



II HULSEAN LECTURES 53 

are probably a reminiscence of the early char- 
acter of the goddess as presiding over the 
springing of the fresh corn. And the char- 
acter of Osiris "^ as a god of vegetation is 
shown in the legend that he taught men the 
use of corn and the cultivation of the grape, 
and by the fact that his annual festival began 
with a solemn ploughing of the earth. In the 
temple of Isis at Philae the dead body of Osiris 
is represented with stalks of corn springing 
from it, which a priest waters from a vessel 
which he holds in his hand. An inscription 
sets forth that " this is the form of him whom 
we may not name, Osiris of the Mysteries, 
who sprang from the returning waters." 
Clearly he was a personification of the corn 
which sprang from the yearly watered valley. 
And a later process in the treatment of the 
corn, winnowing, seems to be indicated in the 
story that Isis placed the severed remains of 
Osiris in a corn-sieve. 

But whatever may have been the original 
character of Egyptian worship, there can be no 
doubt as to the objects which were prominent 
in it for many generations. Nowhere in the 



54 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

antique world have the death of the body and 
the Hfe of the soul been matter of so much 
anxious thought as in Egypt ; nowhere have 
so great efforts been made to preserve for those 
who have passed away from earth a memory 
full of honour and regard. The valley of the 
Nile is a long scroll margined with memorials 
of the dead. From the river are seen every- 
where tombs, sculptured stones, symbols, 
enigmatic characters. For thousands of years 
a whole people devoted itself with unremitting 
assiduity to the task of securing for its kindred a 
new life beyond the grave. Death should be, 
they thought, to him who is duly prepared for 
it but a crisis in life. They regarded, says 
Diodorus,^*^ their houses but as wayside inns, 
their tombs as their everlasting dwellings ; the 
tomb was not the end of life. And in Egypt, 
as elsewhere, the power of giving man life after 
death was ascribed to the same deities which 
were thought to cause the blade to spring from 
the seemingly dead seed. Osiris came to be 
regarded as the monarch of the dead and the 
guide of souls out of earthly darkness into the 
blissful realm where they shall have full sight 



II HULSEAN LECTURES 55 

of the divinity without restraint. The departed 
is in a mystic manner identified with Osiris ; ^^ 
in his hfe he hves. And the departed, united 
with Osiris, comes to have a place in the bark 
of the sun ; in the great contest of hght and 
darkness he is on the side of Hght. The 
journey of the soul through the under-world is 
identified with that of the sun passing under 
the earth to reach the eastern horizon. Many 
are the perils which it has to undergo, and its 
only safety is in union with Osiris, to ensure 
which the necessary names and formularies are 
deposited in the coffin and engraved on the 
sarcophagus.^'^ Many of these survive to bear 
witness to the faith of the ancient men who 
wrote them. Thus the worship of the sun is 
connected with that of the Chthonian powers 
which cause the revival of vegetative life. 

Serapis, Osiris-Apis, seems to be a form of 
Osiris in the character of the god of the lower 
world. His worship was developed under the 
Ptolemies, and was naturally influenced by 
Hellenic views. It spread rapidly and in the 
time of Hadrian extended throughout the 
Roman world, superseding that of Osiris. The 



56 HULSEAN LECTURES 



LECT. 



corn-measure -'^ with which his head is crowned 
indicates that he too was once a deity of the 
corn. With his cult is generally associated that 
of I sis, who came to be regarded as the most 
universal of goddesses,^^ rulino- over thino-s in 
heaven and things on earth and things under 
the earth, decreeing life and death, reward and 
punishment. Egyptian purifications and festi- 
vals, Egyptian views of the divine judgment of 
the dead, deeply touched and impressed sur- 
rounding nations. In the early days of the 
Empire the worship of Isis established itself 
in all parts of the Roman dominion, and was 
celebrated in several popular festivals. 

Of the manner in which the worship of Isis 
and Osiris was regarded in the early days of 
Christianity by a man of inquiring mind and 
great zeal for religion, we have an interesting 
specimen in Plutarch's treatise on Isis and 
Osiris. Plutarch, a Greek and a priest of 
Apollo at Delphi, expresses generally the con- 
tempt natural in such a man for foreign super- 
stitions. Nevertheless he is attracted to the 
worship of these deities ; the defects and 
deformities of their legends he covers under a 



II HULSEAN LECTURES 57 

decent veil of allegory, and he will by no means 
admit that they are mere local gods of Egypt ; 
they are the universal divinities, worshipped, 
under one name or other, by all mankind. It 
was probably the belief in their universality 
which drew other thoughtful men to the shrines 
of I sis and Osiris. The more philosophy 
advanced, the more men shrank from parcelling 
out the world to local deities. That which was 
natural when a foreigner was carefully excluded 
from the worship of the gods of a nation not his 
own became unnatural when men were con- 
scious of a common humanity transcending 
national bounds. 

And the worship of Isis and Osiris is illus- 
trated by another document of a very different 
kind, the Metamorphoses of Apuleius. This is 
a romance of the most extravagant kind, and 
it is extremely doubtful how far that which is 
related of the hero represents a real experience 
of the author. When it is revealed to Lucius, 
the hero, time after time, that he must give 
more money to the priests before he can be 
initiated, we cannot help suspecting the whole 
narrative of a certain irony. But we may, not- 



58 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

withstanding, be tolerably certain that what 
Apuleius says of the mysteries of I sis was 
generally believed, or at all events was likely 
to be accepted as truth by his contemporaries ; 
and there is nothing in the story of the initiation 
— so far as it is revealed — monstrous or even 
improbable. Apuleius,^^ too, like Plutarch, re- 
gards Isis as parent of the universe, mis- 
tress of the elements, first offspring of the ages, 
chief of the heavenly beings, ruling over the 
sky, the sea, and the things under the earth ; 
the one deity whom the whole world worships 
under many names, though her true name is 
Isis the Queen. The worshipper addresses her 
as " Regina Coeli," and it was no doubt as the 
compassionate and omnipotent Queen of both 
worlds that she drew to herself so great a 
crowd of worshippers. 

So far we have been concerned with the 
Chthonian deities ; the same gods cause the 
fruits of the earth to spring up for the living, 
and receive the souls of the dead into their 
invisible realm. In Asia, in Egypt, and in 
Greece, the powers which give life to the corn 
and the trees seem to have been identified with 



II HULSEAN LECTURES 



59 



those which give to man the soul which makes 
him what he is. But the most prevalent of all 
cults was that of the sun. Mithras ^"^ was the 
Persian god of light, the light of the body 
and the light of the mind, typified in the 
glorious sun who never fails to conquer the 
powers of darkness. And this great deity not 
only protected and. supported man in this life, 
but watched over his soul in the next, guarding 
it from the spirits of evil. His worship, already 
widely spread in the east, is said to have been 
introduced into the western provinces in the 
first century before Christ. In the early part 
of the second century after Christ it had become 
common in every part of the Roman Empire : 
wherever Roman troops were stationed we 
find traces of Mithraic worship. The great 
deity was commonly worshipped in a cave, 
which, originally perhaps representing the re- 
cess beneath the earth in which the sun was 
supposed to hide his beams during the night, 
came to signify to devout worshippers the 
abyss into which the soul must descend, to be 
purified by many trials before leaving it. His 
worship became a mystery, to which votaries 



6o HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

were only admitted after passing through many- 
grades and various trials. 

From very early times the deities who pre- 
sided over vegetation were regarded as having 
charge also of the souls of men, while the sun- 
light typified a life more glorious than that of 
earth. But why did these deities come to be 
specially looked upon as guardians of souls ? 
No certain and conclusive answer can be given, 
but we may at any rate say that primitive m.an 
drew little or no distinction between the life or 
spirit of vegetation and the spirit of man.^" 
The legends both of the Semitic and the Indo- 
Germanic race testify to the ancient belief of 
man that plants and trees were animated by 
spirits not unlike his own. That men are 
sprung from plants or trees is an article of belief 
among some of the African tribes even to this 
day. 

Now, to advance one stage upon this, man 
might well imagine that, as all plants and trees 
spring from the earth, some great beings dwell- 
ing beneath the earth ruled over the spirits 
and sent them into the grass and herb and 
tree which grew up everywhere on its surface. 



II . HULSEAN LECTURES 6i 

And if such earth-deities ruled over the spirits 
of plants and trees, were they not also rulers 
of the spirits of men, themselves also sprung 
from trees, or at any rate in some way from 
the earth ? The doctrine of rewards and 
punishments in the world to come, such as 
it existed at the time of the first preaching of 
Christianity, is doubtless a later development, 
and has received accretions from many quarters ; 
but it may well have been grafted on such a 
primeval belief as that which I have supposed ; 
and this doctrine was especially prominent in 
mystic worship. ^^ 

The various Mysteries differed widely from 
each other, but certain general characteristics 
may be traced in all. All required some kind 
of preparation and purification before admission ; 
in all there were Xeyofieva and BeiKvvfieva or 
Spco/xeva, words spoken and actions exhibited ; 
in all it seems certain that an allegoric ex- 
position was given of dramatised story of some 
deity or deities. And while Olympus was no 
place for suffering w^hich could mar the bliss 
of the supernal deities, in the Mysteries the 
suffering of a god, suffering followed by 



62 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

triumph, seems to have been the invariable 
subject of the sacred drama. In all, the 
initiated were led to hope for divine help in 
this life, atonement for sin past, and an im- 
mortality of bliss. And the general tendency 
of the Mysteries, at least in their later forms, 
seems to have been towards monotheism ; the 
gods of popular mythology become no more 
than parts of one stupendous whole, or even 
mere appellations of the one only God. The 
Mysteries thus attempted to cover precisely 
the same ground which was in due time occupied 
by the Christian Church. They exhibit very 
strongly those yearnings of humanity which 
the Incarnation of the Son of God was to 
satisfy. They were doubtless attractive to 
the very same class of minds which welcomed 
Christianity when it was preached to them. 
Tatian^'^ tells us that he had himself been 
admitted to some Mysteries, but found no 
satisfaction until he met with certain barbaric 
books — the Scriptures — at once older and 
more divine than those of the Greeks. The 
relation between these Mysteries, whether 
with regard to teaching or doctrine, and the 



II . HULSEAN LECTURES 63 

sacraments of the Christian Church will be 
the subject of the remaining lectures of this 
course. 

Such claims as those of the Mysteries 
appealed strongly to a perplexed and troubled 
age. At the time when Christianity was first 
preached, the old confident, self-reliant spirit 
of the Greeks, which was so little afraid of 
consequences, had almost passed away ; philo- 
sophers and populace were alike haunted by 
a consciousness of impurity in the sight of 
the deity, which led them to seek purification ; 
and by a feeling of spiritual weakness, which 
rendered the thought of divine help, protection, 
and guidance inexpressibly grateful to them. 
The mere performance of rites and recitation 
of formularies no longer satisfied men who 
were in this condition of mind ; they needed 
the glow of mystic devotion, the sense of being 
raised "above the smoke and stir of this dim 
spot, which men call earth," to a nearer sight 
of the divinity. In this age we find not only 
the populace, but philosophers seeking for 
salvation, awri^pia ; and if this word did not 
connote all that the word "salvation" does 



64 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

for US, it Still acknowledged the need of divine 
help if men were to become partakers of the 
divine nature, escaping the taint that is in the 
world through lust/'^ We find something in 
Seneca and Plutarch which is not present in 
the writings of the classic period, not even in 
those of the most religious of all philosophers, 
Plato ; a consciousness of the perplexities of 
human life, a readiness to accept help wherever 
it may be offered, which are by no means 
characteristic either of Greeks or Romans in 
the hardy days of vigorous political life. The 
individual man becomes more important as the 
greater organism, the city or state, ceases to be 
all-absorbing. 

On minds in this condition the Eastern 
deities, with their claims to be of primeval 
antiquity and to impart wisdom unattainable 
by the natural powers of man, served by 
priests totally unlike the state - officials who 
regulated the ceremonies and recited the 
traditional words at civic festivals, priests 
who, in many cases at least, held themselves 
aloof from the ordinary duties of a citizen, 
and devoted themselves to the service of 



II  HULSEAN LECTURES 65 

their sanctuary, priests who often gave 
themselves out to be the interpreters of 
a divinity, — on seeking and anxious minds 
such deities and such priests often made 
a deep impression. And in particular the 
secret worship of such deities had a peculiar 
attraction. Secrecy itself, the privilege of being 
admitted to a society not open to the common 
herd, is itself attractive to many minds, and if 
the mystagogue had in fact little to reveal, it 
was no doubt commonly believed that he could 
reveal much. Few men love the narrow road 
which leads to truth. To pass along the 
painful path, stumbling and falling, seizing, 
examining, rejecting things which come before 
our gaze, retaining at last perhaps but little of 
all that we once seemed to have, this is de- 
lightful to the few choice spirits who are the 
salt of the earth, but to every -day common- 
place minds it is hateful. Many of those who 
enter on the search for truth, when they en- 
counter its difficulties and discouragements, fall 
into an easy and seductive scepticism. They 
ask, "What is truth?" and will not stay for 
an answer. But there is also a large class 

F 



66 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

always ready to welcome that which offers them 
truth without the labour and disappointment 
which the search for it involves. It was this 
feeling which drew crowds to those secret 
associations which offered, by certain words 
and ceremonies, to put them in possession of 
the absolute truth as to man and his destinies. 
To have the great secret which men so much 
desire, and in the search for which they go so 
widely astray, whispered in their ears by one 
who had learned it from the divinity ; to be 
set on a pinnacle of knowledge above the crowd 
of the blind and ignorant ; — this could not but 
be enchanting. No wonder that in the early 
days of the Empire, when the minds of men 
were so deeply moved by the thought of man's 
lot when he passed to that bourne whence no 
traveller returns, when hierophants of ancient 
rites, and shameless impostors who imitated 
their craft, were everywhere found, crowds 
were drawn to the various initiations — crowds 
of men who were often, no doubt, disillusioned 
and disappointed. 

Such men are always destined to be dis- 
illusioned. Truth cannot be poured into the 



II . HULSEAN LECTURES 67 

mind as we pour wine into a goblet ; the 
attainment of it is as much due to the training 
of the mind as to that which is imparted from 
without. When a man is admitted into the 
Church of Christ, it is not pretended that he 
is at once put in possession of all truth, but he 
has imparted to him fruitful truths — truths 
which will enable him to bring forth fruit unto 
holiness and to attain finally everlasting life. 
He is made partaker of that special gift of the 
Spirit which will in the end, if he is faithful 
to it, guide him into all truth ; but even an 
Apostle, while he is yet surrounded by the 
trials and perplexities of this life, "counts not 
himself to have apprehended " the whole truth ; 
there is still something to know ; he stretches 
forward still, "that he may know Christ and 
the power of His resurrection, and the fellow- 
ship of His sufferings, being conformed unto 
His death ; if by any means He might attain 
unto the resurrection from the dead." Such 
is the course of every one who is initiated into 
the secret of Christ. " The Word was made 
flesh and dwelt among us"; "in Him was 
life, and the life was the light of men." Simple 



68 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. ii 

words, but words of divine origin and of divine 
force. May God grant us grace so to live 
by them that we may in the end rise above 
the darkness of our present state, and dwell in 
His everlasting light. 



LECTURE III 



Ill 



" Howbeit we speak wisdom among the perfect : yet a wisdom 
not of this world, nor of the rulers of this world, which 
are coming to nought : but we speak God's wisdom in a 
mystery, even the wisdom that hath been hidden, which 
God foreordained before the worlds unto our glory." — 
I Cor. ii. 6, 7- (R.V.) 

The general result of our brief survey of the 
chief pagan Mysteries is this. At the time 
when the Christian Church was making its 
early conquests, the Empire was covered with 
Mysteries, or with what much resembled Mys- 
teries, Thiasi, associations formed lor the wor- 
ship of some deity distinct from the civic gods 
of the countries where they were formed. It 
is hardly too much to say with Renan that 
these formed the serious part of pagan religion. 
The yearning of paganism sought in them what 
it had not found in the national cult, and the 
lovers of the old paganism hoped to find in 



72 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

them a defence against victorious Christianity. 
As Christianity advanced, there seems to have 
been an attempt to render the Mysteries more 
attractive and more impressive to the new forms 
of thought which had arisen. The Mysteries 
doubtless shared in the pagan revival under 
Hadrian and the Antonines. The former was 
indeed himself initiated into the Eleusinian. 

Now, what influence did the ancient societies 
which, under whatever name, attempted to 
satisfy the deep craving in the mind of man 
for purification and the hope of a blessed 
immortality, exert upon the rising Church in its 
early years ? Preller,^^ to whose investigations 
I owe much, says that in the struggle with 
paganism, Christianity "did not win its victory 
without receiving some wounds of which it even 
now bears the scars ; for careful and extensive 
research would certainly show that much of that 
which in the Catholic Church (whether Roman 
or Greek) is not derived from the Gospel, par- 
ticularly as regards ritual, is to be referred to 
that contest, and to be regarded as spoil from 
the pagan Mysteries taken over into the enemy's 
camp." Renan ^- adopts this sentence, and adds, 



in IIULSEAN LECTURES 73 

" The primitive form of Christian worship was 
a mystery. All the internal discipline of the 
Church, the grades of initiation, the injunc- 
tion of secrecy, numerous peculiar ecclesiastical 
terms, have no other origin." And an English 
writer of remarkable ability and great learning, 
whose premature death no one lamented more 
than I, the late Dr. Hatch, expressed the same 
sentiment with somewhat greater definiteness."^ 
" The influence of the Mysteries," he says, " and 
of the religious cults which were analogous to 
the Mysteries, was not simply general ; they 
modified in some important respects the Chris- 
tian sacraments of Baptism and the Eucharist 
— the practice, that is, of admission to the 
society by a symbolical purification, and the 
practice of expressing membership of the society 
by a common meal. . . . The elements which 
are found in the later and not in the earlier 
form [of the sacraments] are elements which are 
found outside Christianity in the [Mysteries and 
Thiasi]." 

It seems worth while to examine how far 
this allegation is true. That it contains some 
truth few candid inquirers would, I think, be 



74 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

disposed to deny. A society for worship, a 
society seeking to enlist among its members 
not only scions of one race or citizens of one 
city, but all men everywhere, without distinction 
of race or sex or condition, could scarcely fail 
to resemble in general traits societies already 
founded with a similar aim and under similar 
circumstances. The question is, How far did 
the resemblance extend ? How much of it was 
due to direct imitation ? How much was due 
to influences within the body itself? 

In this inquiry we must bear in mind that 
we are not concerned with words, but things. 
When Mysteries were everywhere found, their 
terminology naturally came to be commonly 
employed, and to be applied to matters 
altogether foreign to its original usage. Plato ** 
frequently uses words referring to initiation in 
the Mysteries to designate the introduction of 
the neophyte into the light of divine philosophy, 
and such words came also to be applied to 
medicine and other branches of physical science 
and to political knowledge. Nay, in the time 
of Cicero, one who conducted strangers over 
the public buildings of a city was called a 



Ill HULSEAN LECTURES 75 

mystagogue/^ When the word was so used, it 
can scarcely have recalled the idea of a Mystery 
more than the word " Kapellmeister," applied 
to the conductor of a band, recalls the notion of 
a chapel. The use of such words as /avo-t?;? and 
fxefjbvr]/jievo<; in later times may be compared to 
our use of the word " adept." Not more than 
two hundred years ago it distinctly suggested 
the alchemists or Rosicrucians ; now, who that 
speaks of an adept in some art or some game 
dreams of its connection with old pseudo- 
science ? We must therefore be cautious in 
inferring from the mere use of a word that a 
corresponding institution accompanied it. 

And terms which designate Christian rites 
have sometimes been over-hastily referred for 
their origin to pagan Mysteries. " So early as 
the time of Justin Martyr, we find," it is said,^''' 
"a name given to baptism which comes straight 
from the Greek Mysteries — the name ' en- 
lightenment ' (0ft)Tto-/iO9, (fjoiTi^eadai,)." It is 
quite true that Justin applies the word " en- 
lightenment " to the sacred font, because he says 
" it implies that the minds of the baptized 
have been enlightened by previous instruc- 



76 HULSEAN LECTURES 



LECT. 



tion"; but it is very doubtful whether initiation 
into a Mystery is described by pagans as c^wrt- 
0-/1,09/' The Christian use of the word ^&)Tto-/A09 
is derived in the most obvious and natural way 
from the contrast between the state of those 
who had become " light in the Lord," " children 
of light," and that of the men who were still in 
darkness. The word a-t^pa^l^, seal, applied to 
baptism and especially to the sign of the cross, 
is said to come "both from the Mysteries and 
from some forms of foreign cult " ; but in the 
instances given in support of this the seal is 
simply the seal of the lips, the seal of silence, 
while it is evident that when the " seal " is 
applied to Christian baptism it is the seal of the 
covenant, or perhaps, as Gregory of Nazianzus *^ 
suggests, the token of the service of the 
divine Master. 

We must remember, too, how fragmentary 
and imperfect is our knowledge both of the 
Mysteries and of the forms of Christian worship 
in the second century after Christ, the age in 
which so much was formed which comes into 
light for us only in the later age of which the 
literary remains are abundant. If two ancient 



Ill IIULSEAN LECTURES 77 

frescoes are discovered, much defaced, a few 
dexterous touches may make them resemble 
each other, though when both were perfect 
they may have been totally unlike. I am dis- 
posed to think that some rhetorical dexterity 
has been employed in tracing the resemblances 
between the pagan and the Christian mysteries. 

Again, the relations of the pagan and Chris- 
tian Mysteries are sometimes treated as if it 
was impossible for the later developments of 
paganism to have been due to a desire to adopt 
what was seen to be attractive in Christianity. 
And yet we can hardly doubt that the same 
feeling, which in after years led Julian to 
attempt to remodel pagan institutions after the 
pattern of Christian, must have tempted earlier 
pagans, when they saw with dismay the con- 
stant growth of Christianity, to offer, so far as 
they could, the same attractions which drew 
men to the worship of the Church. ^^ 

That which has especially struck most 
modern inquirers into the nature of the Mys- 
teries is their secrecy, or supposed secrecy, as 
to their rites, a point which to an ancient philo- 
sopher probably seemed the most natural thing 



78 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

in the world. It was at any rate the fact that 
the rites or exhibitions within the sacred pre- 
cinct were only displayed to the initiated, and 
it is often represented that the practice of keep- 
ing secret certain portions of Christian worship 
and doctrine from the world at large, and only 
revealing them with precaution to certain dis- 
ciples who, after long trial, were judged worthy, 
is alien from the original spirit of Christianity, 
and is due probably to the influence of the 
pagan Mysteries. "It is possible," we read,^'' 
"that they made the Christian associations 
more secret than before. Up to a certain time 
there is no evidence that Christianity had any 
secrets. It was preached openly to the world. 
It guarded worship by imposing a moral bar to 
admission. But its rites were simple, and its 
teaching was public. After a certain time all is 
changed ; mysteries have arisen in the once 
open and easily accessible faith, and there are 
doctrines which must not be declared in the 
hearing of the uninitiated." 

Now, we may say at once that the early 
Christians took nothing consciously from pagan 
Mysteries. They felt for them a repugnance 



in HULSEAN LECTURES 79 

and abhorrence even greater than for other 
pagan institutions.^^ Whether their horror 
was justified is not now the question ; we are 
only concerned with the fact, of which there is 
abundant evidence. 

But, further, there seems to be a certain 
confusion in the statement which I have just 
quoted. To allow none but those who had 
learned the truths of Christianity, and had been 
duly admitted to the Church by baptism, to be 
present at the most solemn rite of Christians, is 
one thing ; to practise reserve in teaching is 
another. To speak first of the former. I can 
see no reason to believe that the Holy Eucha- 
rist, having at first been free and open to all, 
became, under the influence of the pagan Mys- 
teries, close and secret. Though the Gospel is 
proclaimed to all men, it by no means follows 
that every act of worship within the Church 
should be open to the infidel as well as to the 
true believer. The kingf sends forth his serv- 
ants to bid all men to the marriage-feast, and 
yet he will not have them sit down in garments 
soiled and stained in the ways of the world. 
That which is holy is not to be given to dogs, 



So HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

nor pearls to those who in their swinish mood 
would trample them under their feet. Christi- 
anity has, in fact, always been anxious to guard 
its treasures from profanation. 

There is no reason to believe that at any 
time during the first four centuries unbaptized 
persons were present during the most solemn 
part of the eucharistic office. All the prece- 
dents of the ancient world, not of the Mysteries 
only, were against the indiscriminate admission 
of worshippers. Among the Jews, the entrance 
of Gentiles into the court in which sacrifice was 
offered was forbidden on pain of death ; at the 
Jewish Passover only the members of a Jewish 
family, natural or adoptive, could be present. 
But to the synagogues, the main purpose of 
which was rather instruction than worship,^- the 
uncircumcised were freely admitted, and often 
formed a large part of the congregation. It 
is precisely analogous to this that unbaptized 
persons were permitted to be present at that 
portion of the Christian offices which consisted, 
like the synagogue services, of lections, exposi- 
tion, and prayer for common mercies, though 
not at the celebration of the Eucharist. 



Ill HULSEAN LECTURES 8l 

In the Gentile world only citizens could be 
present at a civic sacrifice, and those who 
formed associations for the worship of a foreign 
deity took care that it should be accessible only 
to the associates. 

When Christianity came into the world, 
doubtless the salvation offered by God in Christ 
was preached with the most complete openness 
and freedom ; all men were entreated to enter 
the fold ; but it by no means follows that all 
men were at once admitted to the rite which 
the Lord instituted in the midst of the small 
body of those who had companied with Him 
all the time of His ministry, and learned the 
lessons of His divine school. When the Break- 
ing of Bread took place in private houses we 
may be sure that none but the faithful witnessed 
it. At Corinth an ISlmtt]^, not gifted with 
tongues, or even an airtaro';, one in no sense 
belonging to the fold of Christ, might be 
present in a meeting at which the gifts of pro- 
phesying or of tongues were exercised ; but 
there is nothing to connect this meeting with 
the Eucharist, which is mentioned separately in 
the same epistle in a different connection ; and 

G 



82 nULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

here the Apostle certainly seems to speak only 
of Christians, the flock whom he addresses, as 
coming together. Pliny,"^^ when he inquired 
about the Bithynian Church, knew nothing 
of what took place in Christian assemblies 
except what he learned from Christians. Not 
even spies seem to have succeeded in mingling 
with the worshippers. In fact, the very calum- 
nies which were current as to what took place 
when Christians met show how carefully their 
secret was kept. It is the unknown region 
that is peopled with monsters. 

The question, Who were allowed to h^present 
at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist ? is 
distinct from the question, What knoivledge had 
those who were without of the rites of those 
who were within the pale ? As to the latter, 
St. Paul's Epistles and the Gospels, or — at a 
still earlier date — the materials from which the 
Gospels were drawn, must have been accessible 
to all who wished to read them. We must not 
indeed suppose that the sending forth of such 
books as these resembled the printing and 
publishing of a modern book. Books such as 
St. Paul's letters, intended for the use of 



Ill HULSEAN LECTURES 83 

particular churches or of individuals, would 
probably at first be little, if at all, known be- 
yond the circle to which they were addressed. 
And the Gospels would probably find few 
readers outside the Christian Church. They 
were written by Christians for Christians. 
Still, an eager pagan inquirer like Celsus, in 
the second century, had no difficulty in mak- 
ing himself acquainted with the leading facts 
of the Gospel history ; and what Celsus could 
do, other pagans might also do. In the fourth 
century, when the secrecy of some portions of 
the sacred rites is constantly spoken of, books 
were multiplied, and such authorities as St. 
John Chrysostom^* speak as if domestic reading 
of the New Testament was common. Books 
which were commonly found in private houses 
can scarcely have been entirely out of the 
reach of any who wished to read them. We 
may assume, therefore, that the general nature 
of Christian rites may have been known to 
many who were not Christians. And yet 
there may have been something in the manner 
of celebrating the Eucharist which Christians 
wished to conceal, and did conceal, from those 



84 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

who were not initiated and sealed. Some 
gesture which it was believed the Lord had 
used, the actual forni of evXoyia, the actual form 
of evxapicTTLa — these remain unrevealed in the 
writings of the New Testament. These, we 
may well believe, were concealed from the 
knowledge of those who were without, lest 
profane use should be made of them. And we 
may say much the same of the Apologists. 
They indeed, in books addressed to pagans, 
tell us much of the celebration of the most 
sacred rite of Christianity ; but their de- 
scriptions also, like those of the Gospels and 
of St. Paul, are quite general. There is no 
mention of the gestures used, no quoting the 
words of evXoyia Or ev'^apicTTLa. St. Basil,'' in 
the fourth century, asks which of the saints 
left behind for us in writing the words of the 
epiclesis, the invocation of the Holy Spirit 
upon the elements, which was regarded as 
highly important for the mystery. Such an 
epiclesis is in fact found in all Liturgies except 
the Roman, and in the East is regarded as 
essential to consecration. But no Apologist 
gives it ; and I think that it would be difficult 



Ill HULSEAN LECTURES 85 

to show from the Apologists that the words 
of institution, to which so great importance 
is attached in the West, were recited over the 
elements. And yet the use of these words is 
so absolutely universal in Liturgies that it is 
almost impossible to doubt that it is primitive. 
The profanation which Christians most dreaded 
was a mock celebration by unbelievers ; hence 
they carefully avoided revealing the sacred 
words to which special efficacy was attributed. 
The secrecy of Christian worship arose from 
the circumstances under which it came into the 
world. 

The rites of the Church were no doubt 
much more simple in the days when worship 
was held in the upper room of a faithful 
disciple than it is now, when it is practically 
open to all. Publicity and splendour have 
almost certainly advanced with equal steps. 
But on this we need not dwell, for all are 
agreed as to the fact of the increase in the 
splendour and complexity of ritual, to what- 
ever cause they may attribute it. The question 
which I wish to discuss is, How far is it true 
that " mysteries have arisen " — let us say in 



86 HULSEAN LECTURES 



LECT. 



the fourth century — "in the once open and 
easily accessible faith, and there are doctrines 
which must not be declared in the hearing of 
the uninitiated." 

We admit at once the perfect simplicity, 
frankness, and fulness of the first preachers of 
the Gospel. They were dvOpcoTroL aypafifMaroL 
Kol IStMTac, men neither specially trained in 
literature nor teachers by profession. When 
they speak of the mystery of God, the 
mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, and 
the like, they do not speak of something to 
be carefully kept secret, to be revealed as a 
great privilege to a chosen few. Far from it. 
They speak of something to be proclaimed 
with the loud voice of a herald throughout 
the world, of glad tidings to be brought to 
every creature ; they go forth into the world 
to bring to the wretched and degraded tidings 
of great joy, of a new birth unto righteousness. 
Their message was not to a select aristocracy 
of the wise and learned, like that of a Greek 
philosopher or a Hebrew rabbi ; they had no 
contempt for the untaught multitude ; on the 
contrary, it was to the despised and despairing 



Ill HULSEAN LECTURES 87 

class that their words especially came home. 
True, that which they had to proclaim was a 
mystery, a secret for long ages hidden ; but 
once made known, it was to be hidden no 
more. The secret of godliness is of One who 
was manifested in the flesh, justified in the 
spirit, seen of angels, proclaimed or heralded 
among the nations, believed on in the world, 
received up in glory. This is a truth which 
man could not reach by any exertion of the 
intellect ; here the imaginative spirit of Plato 
is as powerless as the dull mind of the slave 
at the mill. That which the first preachers 
of the Gospel proclaimed was a secret re- 
vealed, and I do not know that it was ever 
attempted to obscure it. Granting, as of course 
we do grant, that in the third century some- 
thing .was revealed only to those who had been 
carefully trained to receive it, what, after all, 
was it which was not proclaimed in the streets 
and lanes? To the charge that Christians 
veiled in silence many of their principles Origen^*^ 
replied with much force, that in fact the doctrines 
of Christians were much better known in the 
world than the tenets of philosophers. Who, 



88 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

he says, has not heard of Jesus the virgin- 
born, the crucified ? Who knows not His 
resurrection, and the judgment to come, in 
which sinners are to be punished and the 
righteous rewarded according to their deserts ? 
These things were preached to all who would 
hear ; and how does this preaching differ from 
that of St. Paul, when he preached Jesus and 
the resurrection, when he reasoned of righteous- 
ness and self-control and the judgment to come? 
Certainly he taught even higher things than 
these, but it was to those who were full-grown, 
not to babes in Christ, not to curious triflers 
like the Athenians, nor to " rulers of this world " 
like Felix, that he proclaimed " the wisdom 
of God in a mystery, the wisdom which had 
been hidden." Thus, in the Christian as in the 
pagan mysteries, while the general objects of 
the teaching — the revelation of God in Christ, 
His resurrection, and the blessedness of those 
who faithfully follow Him — were known to all 
without any concealment or diminution, some 
forms of ritual, and some points of doctrine 
which were not at once intelligible, were re- 
served for those who had been specially pre- 



"I HULSEAN LECTURES 89 

pared to receive them. That persons brought 
up in a Christian family were ignorant of 
Christian truth until they had passed through 
the catechumenate is a hypothesis which cannot 
be maintained for an instant. 

Reticence on certain high matters of Chris- 
tian doctrine was probably occasioned, at least 
in part, by consideration for the pagans them- 
selves. In the end, doubtless, Christian doc- 
trine found expression in a manner not only 
intelligible but attractive to the Greek spirit, 
but at first, as we may see in such thinkers as 
Marcus Aurelius and Celsus, there was some- 
thing in its teaching which an unimpassioned 
and unsympathetic pagan found difficult to 
grasp ; something which was to him foolishness, 
as being out of harmony with his way of regard- 
ing man and nature. Now, teaching which is 
above the range of the ordinary thought of 
cultivated men, and yet is too important to be 
neglected, is sure to be the butt of the artillery 
of nimble wits in every age. It was therefore 
natural enough that Christians should shrink 
from exposing their most abstruse doctrines to 
the mockery of pagans who might in the end 



90 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

bitterly repent it. Mockery of this kind wouki 
be to them blasphemy — blasphemy which would 
hurt both him that spoke and him that heard.^^ 

Whatever the motive, it is clear that certain 
formularies of worship and certain expressions 
of doctrine were only revealed to those who 
were on the point of receiving Holy Baptism. 
This fact gave great importance to the pre- 
liminary training of the catechumens. 

That as early as the end of the second 
century candidates for baptism passed through 
a course of instruction before they were ad- 
mitted to the full privileges of their calling is 
certainly established, though the fuller develop- 
ment of the sytem belongs to the fourth. At 
this time the formularies of the baptismal rite 
itself, the Creed or confession of faith, the 
Lord's Prayer, the form of consecrating and 
administering the Holy Eucharist, were only 
made known to the postulants at the end of their 
course of instruction. They were divided into 
two '^' — or possibly more — classes. A course 
of instruction preparatory to baptism is some- 
times thought to be of post -apostolic origin, 
and the division into classes to resemble 



Ill  HULSEAN LECTURES 91 

the degrees of initiation in some of the 
pagan Mysteries. And yet that persons under 
instruction should be divided into classes, and 
advanced from one to the other according to 
their proficiency, is a matter so very simple 
and obvious as hardly to require a precedent. 
As Lobeck says, every one has to approach the 
end at which he aims by steps ; ^'^ there is no 
other way. 

"In the earliest times (we read)-° baptism 
followed at once upon conversion. . . . This is 
shown by the Acts of the Apostles ; the men 
who repented at Pentecost, those who believed 
when Philip preached in Samaria, the Ethiopian 
eunuch, Cornelius, Lydia, the jailer at Philippi, 
the converts at Corinth and Ephesus, were 
baptized as soon as they were known to recog- 
nise Jesus as the Messiah." Jews and Jewish 
proselytes were no doubt baptized as soon as 
they declared their faith in Jesus as the Messiah. 
They already knew the Scriptures ; they ac- 
knowledged the Father and the Holy Spirit ; 
what they needed for the completeness of their 
faith was but the recognition of the Son who 
redeemeth us. The multitudes who believed 



92 IIULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

after the first Pentecost, Cornelius, Lydia, 
and the Ethiopian eunuch were so admitted. 
Probably the same might be said of the 
Samaritans, but in fact we do not know 
what instruction they received before they 
were baptized. The narrative gives the im- 
pression that Philip's preaching continued for 
some time before the baptisms began. We 
know nothing of the instruction given to 
Gentile converts at Corinth, but we cannot 
doubt that before baptism they were at any 
rate sufficiently instructed to be enabled to 
understand what was meant when it was said 
that Jesus of Nazareth was the anointed One, 
the promised Messiah ; and this, for persons 
who started from purely pagan training, implies 
a course of teaching neither brief nor perfunc- 
tory. Those who were baptized at Ephesus 
had been instructed by the Alexandrian Jew 
Apollos, a man not only mighty in Scripture, 
but bubbling over with the Spirit, and himself 
taught in the way of the Lord. Is it conceivable 
that such a man had failed to teach them to 
believe in the Father and the Holy Spirit, 
according to the conception current among the 



in HULSEAN LECTURES 93 

more enlightened Jews, though he had not told 
them of the special gift of the Holy Ghost, 
which was the consequence of the ascension 
of the Son to the Father ? Of the Philippian 
jailer nothing is known ; he may have been a 
Jew or a proselyte. But whatever may have 
been the primitive practice, it is certain that 
before the end of the second century a regular 
system of instruction was provided for those 
who desired to be baptized. In primitive times 
this instruction seems to have been mainly of a 
practical kind, intended to impress upon the 
candidate the great and awful distinction be- 
tween the way of life and the way of death ; 
but as it is not disputed that from the first men 
were baptized into the name of the Father and 
of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, it is incon- 
ceivable that any should have been brought to 
the sacred font who had not been taught the 
doctrine of the Holy Three in One, the essence 
of the Christian creed ; and this implies, at any 
rate for Gentiles, a course of instruction, prob- 
ably of considerable length. Whatever else 
it may have contained, it must have supplied an 
answer to the question, "What think ye of 



94 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

Christ ? " To that extent it must have been 
dogmatic from the first. As theology became 
more careful and elaborate, doubtless instruction 
became less simple ; it became in the middle of 
the fourth century such as we see it in the 
Catechetical Lectures of Cyril of Jerusalem ; 
but the great central dogma must always have 
been taught. And to this dogmatic teaching 
the Mysteries can offer no parallel. Paganism 
had no dogmas — propositions, that is, on theo- 
logical subjects enforced by authority, to the 
exclusion of all others. Theology, indeed, it 
had in abundance, but it was not the affair of 
priests and hierophants, but of philosophers, 
and of these no one sect could claim the sole 
possession of orthodoxy. Stoics and Epicureans 
alike might, if they chose, approach the shrines 
of their country's deities. Nothing which we 
should call faith was required of them, but 
only observance. Any resemblance, therefore, 
between the preparation for admission to the 
Christian Church and the preparation for 
admission to the pagan Mysteries must be 
purely superficial, and it may well be doubted 
whether there is even a superficial resemblance. 



Ill HULSEAN LECTURES 95 

It can scarcely be seriously maintained that the 
numerous trials through which (it is said) the 
candidate for Mithraic initiation had to pass, 
have any analogy within the Church ; and the 
eight degrees of the Mithraic initiated, with 
their fantastic designations of ravens, fighters, 
lions, and the like, are in flagrant contrast with 
the absolute equality of those who have learned 
the secret of Christ. ^°' In any case, the develop- 
ment of Mithraism, in the form with which we 
are concerned, is so exactly contemporary with 
the development of the Christian Church, that 
if there were any resemblance, it would be 
difficult to say which was the imitation and 
which the original. 



LECTURE IV 



11 



IV 



" I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth on me 
may not abide in the darkness."— St. John xii. 46. (R.V.) 

TiiEON of Smyrna,"^ In the second century after 
Christ, tells us that there were five grades or 
degrees of Initiation Into the Mysteries. " First, 
the preliminary purification (/ca^ap/xo?), for not 
all who wish are allowed to partake of the 
Mysteries, but proclamation Is made to exclude 
from them some men as not having pure hands 
or discreet lips, and those who are not excluded 
must receive purification before proceeding 
further. Secondly, after the purification {kcW- 
apcrtv) comes the transmission of the mystic 

secret or symbol (r) T)]<; reA-exT}? -irapdhoai'i). 

Thirdly, what Is called full vision {eiroineia) . 
Fourthly, what Is Indeed the completion of the 
eTroTTTeta, the weaving of garlands and placing 
them on the head, so that a man would be able 



loo HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

to hand on to others the mystic secret which 
he has received if he is appointed a torch-bearer 
or a hierophant, or to any other sacred office. 
Fifthly, the blessedness (evSaifiovla) arising from 
what has gone before, in accordance with the 
gods' will, and in harmony with their life." 

It is evident that in this passage Theon, in 
fact, describes no more than three stages, for 
the crowning is but an adjunct of eVoTrreta, and 
the blessedness is a condition of mind induced 
by the initiation and the subsequent vision. 

Clement of Alexandria*'^ speaks in a similar 
strain, telling us that the purifying rites come 
first in the Hellenic Mysteries, as the bath does 
amone the barbarians. Next after these come 
the lesser Mysteries, laying a foundation of 
teaching and of preparation for what is to 
come. 

We may note here that the purifying rite 
of which Clement speaks was not simply the 
washing of water, for he distinguishes the puri- 
fying of the Hellenic Mysteries from the bath 
of the barbarians ; the KaOdpaia, whatever 
they were, preceded the ceremonies, as the 
\ovTpov did among the barbarians. They could 



IV " HULSEAN LECTURES 



lOI 



not themselves be that to which they are com- 
pared. 

Further, no instruction is mentioned as pre- 
ceding the purifying rites. All that (according 
to Theon) precedes the pagan purification is 
the proclamation to the unclean to avoid pre- 
senting themselves. There were, or there 
might be, degrees of initiation after this. 

In the Christian Church there was a long 
preparation for the purifying rite of Baptism ; 
with the pagans some kind of ceremonial puri- 
fication was the first step towards initiation, and 
for this no preparation was required but an 
easy abstinence for a few days.*^^ 

But further, pagan purification rested upon 
a wholly different conception of human life from 
that of the Christian. "It was not," says 
Rohde,*^^ "a heartfelt consciousness of sin, not 
a moral sense in pain that the purifying rite 
had to assuage ; rather, it was the superstitious 
dread of a world of spirits, hovering over men 
with eerie presence, and clutching at them with 
a thousand hands out of the dim obscurity, 
which called for the help of the purifier and the 
atoning priest." It was not merely as a pre- 



102 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

liminary to the Mysteries that purification was 
required ; some kind of cleansing was com- 
monly required before the worshipper could 
take part in any sacred rite. And this was not 
all ; uncleanness might be contracted by circum- 
stances of the most trivial kind ; from eating a 
particular kind of food, for instance, or even 
from seeing another eat it.*^^ Nothing is more 
curious than the lists in Theophrastus and 
Plutarch*^'' of the trifling mishaps from the 
effects of which a superstitious man required 
to be cleansed, often by what Plutarch calls 
impure purifications and unclean cleansings. 
For it was not merely the washing of water 
that was used for ceremonial purifying ; 
strange rites, such as rubbing with clay or 
bran, were resorted to under the pressure 
of superstitious fear even in the midst of 
Greek and Roman civilisation. In many cases 
the conception of the defilement incurred seems 
little else than material. Many of the philo- 
sophers had, no doubt, far more adequate con- 
ceptions of the flesh, with its affections and 
lusts, but they sought purification not in things 
external, not in lustral waters or magic words. 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 103 

but in the plain living and high thinking which 
might raise them above the meanness and vile- 
ness of the sordid crowd. 

The purifications of the pagan world were 
occasional, employed to remove uncleanness 
contracted in the ordinary course of life, or to 
fit men for taking part in some solemn cere- 
monial, such as sacrifice or the celebration of 
Mysteries. They resembled the ceremonial 
cleansingfs of the Levitical law much more than 
anything found in the Christian Church. But 
we find that in the second century after Christ 
the completion of initiation into the Mysteries 
of I sis was regarded as conferring a new life on 
the votary, and placing him in the way of 
salvation ; he was born again (renatus) and 
blessed (beatus).*^^ Whether this usage was 
derived from terms already in use in the 
Christian Church it is impossible to say. 

Tertullian,^^ however, found a very exact 
counterpart of Christian baptism in pagan rites. 
The devil, he says, "baptizes some, of course 
such as believe in him and are faithful to him ; 
he promises expiation of sins from the bath, 
and, if my memory of Mithras serves me still. 



104 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

in this rite he signs his soldiers on their fore- 
heads." The rest of the passage does not at 
present concern us. In the expressions about 
the ceremonial bath Tertullian adds nothing to 
our knowledge. We know, probably better 
than he did, how universal in paganism was 
the washing of water as a sign of purification 
from some taint of crime or sin. But when he 
speaks of signing on the forehead he describes 
a ceremony absolutely identical with one used, 
if not primitively, certainly in very ancient 
times, in Christian baptism, so far, that is, as 
regards the use of some sign, for it is not clear 
what the Mithraic sign was. It should, how- 
ever, be observed that Tertullian is the only 
authority for this "signing," and that he speaks 
as if he had no great confidence in the accu- 
racy of his memory. It is perhaps too much to 
say with Fabri *'^ that the story is undoubtedly 
a fiction, but we certainly ought not to build a 
theory on an isolated and doubtful testimony. 
Moreover, we ought not to lose sight of the 
possibility that at the end of the second century 
paganism may have imitated Christianity. 

Clement of Alexandria, in the passage 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 105 

already quoted, tells us that the purifying 
ceremony was followed by the lesser Mys- 
teries, which, he says, "contain some ground- 
work of teaching and of preparation for what 
is to follow." This seems to be identical with 
Theon's "delivery of initiation." What this 
teaching and preparation was no man knows. 
Lobeck,™ than whom there is no higher autho- 
rity, says of it, that whether it consisted merely 
of the sight of sacred objects, or of precepts 
and admonitions, and (if the latter), to what 
they related, whether to the conduct of life or 
the observance of ceremonies, "latet aeter- 
numque latebit," hid is it now and hid will 
ever be. But as the same word TrapaSoai'i is 
used of the delivery of the Creed to the 
catechumens before their baptism, the two 
rites are sometimes compared. The similarity 
consists simply in this, that in each case some- 
thing is brought to the knowledge of the 
candidate of which he was before ignorant, 
and that as a qualification for something 
further. When certain points of Christian 
doctrine and worship were revealed only to 
those who were judged fit to receive them, 



io6 HULSEAN LECTURES LECT. 

some such imparting of the knowledge hitherto 
concealed there needs must be, and it could 
hardly fail to have at any rate a superficial 
resemblance to the similar ceremony in the 
Mysteries. 

The Creed, once imparted, became the 
watchword of the Christian soldier, by which 
he distinguished his comrades in the great war- 
fare. "Every leader," says Rufinus,'^ "gives 
to his soldiers distinctive watchwords, in order 
that if one is met with of whose character there 
is doubt, he may, on being asked the watch- 
word, show whether he is friend or foe." The 
Christian soldier makes his solemn promise 
of allegiance to the great Captain, and the 
word "sacramentum " testifies how the military 
metaphor impressed itself on the language of 
the Church. Even to this day we pray that 
the neophyte may not be ashamed to confess 
the faith of Christ crucified, and manfully to 
fight under His banner against sin, the world, 
and the devil, and to continue Christ's faithful 
soldier and servant unto his life's end. There 
can be little doubt that it was from the military 
vocabulary that the word crvfi^o\ov was taken 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 107 

when it was applied to the Creed. So it is 
said," "those who were admitted to the inner 
sights of the Mysteries had a formula or pass- 
word (av/x^o\ov or auvOijfxa)." This was no 
doubt the case ; members of associations for 
worship had means of recognising each other ; 
sometimes passwords, sometimes actual objects 
which might be exhibited.^^ 

"Just as the divinities watched the initiated 
from out of the blaze of light, so Chrysostom 
pictures Christian baptism in the blaze of Easter 
Eve ; and Cyril describes the white-robed band 
of the baptized approaching the doors of the 
church where the lights turned darkness into 
day." '^ In the pagan Mysteries the postulant 
seems to have passed through darkness and 
terrors on his way to the sacred scenes which 
were displayed. The purpose of this was 
probably to enhance the effect of the mystic 
dramatic scenes, but a symbolic meaning was 
no doubt attributed to it. Apuleius '"^ says that 
in his initiation into the Isiac Mysteries he 
drew near the bounds of death, and after 
treading the threshold of Proserpine saw at 
midnifjht the sun shining with a brilliant light ; 



loS HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

he approached and worshipped the gods above 
and the gods below, their statues or their 
representatives standing forth, doubtless, in the 
blaze as of noonday. The use of light in 
the ceremonies of Christian baptism was of 
a different kind. In the first place, it was not 
the case that — as seems to be implied in the 
passage quoted above — the baptized approached 
through darkness "the doors of the church 
where the light turned darkness into day." 
They were themselves the bringers of light ; 
each neophyte carried a lamp or taper. And 
this constitutes a marked distinction from the 
pagan ceremony ; for in the Mysteries the 
torch -bearer {SaSovxo<i) was an official of con- 
siderable importance, which he scarcely could 
have been if all the initiated bore lights. 
Moreover, we do not hear of baptismal lights 
before the fourth century, when the Mysteries 
could have had but little influence. Lights 
were rendered necessary by the custom of 
holding the great baptismal festival of the 
year in the night preceding Easter - Day ; 
once adopted, they soon received a symbolical 
meaning, and came to typify the kingdom of 



IV IIULSEAN LECTURES 



109 



light to which the neophytes had just been 
solemnly admitted. There is a very striking 
description in St. Cyril's Lectures of the scene 
at Jerusalem on Easter-Eve, when the white- 
robed band of the newly -baptized streamed 
from the baptistery to the church of the 
Resurrection, and the darkness was turned into 
day by the brightness of unnumbered lights. 
Angels' voices might well be thought to join in 
the chant, Blessed are they whose unrighteous- 
ness is forgiven and whose sin is covered. ^'^ It 
is scarcely credible that the scene in the church, 
where nothing like a dramatic representation, 
but only the circle of clergy round the holy 
table, prepared to celebrate the mystery of 
divine love, and the solemn yet simple pre- 
parations for the commemoration of the Lord's 
death and resurrection, met the eye on 
entrance, can have resembled in any degree 
the scene which greeted the initiated in the 
Mysteries of Isis or Demeter. In the church 
all is pure and noble. Surely a ceremonial 
which made men realise that they were joined 
to the blessed company of saints and angels was 
different in kind from a representation of the 



no HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

often impure acts of gods and goddesses, how- 
ever artfully they may have been allegorised. 

" The baptized were sometimes crowned 
with a garland, as the initiated wore a mystic 
crown at Eleusis."'' The earliest reference to 
this practice, however, is of the seventh century, 
when the celebration of pagan Mysteries had 
ceased, and so could not offer a model for 
Christian. In any case, we need not seek in 
the Mysteries a precedent for so natural and 
so widespread a festal adornment as a gar- 
land placed on the head. Probably its 
association with pagan festivities prevented 
its adoption by Christians until after the 
abolition of paganism. 

On the Eucharist, even in its earliest form, 
the pagan Mysteries have been supposed to have 
exercised a great influence. Professor Percy 
Gardner, to whom we are indebted for much 
light thrown on Hellenic archaeology, holds 
that the Eucharist originated with St. Paul, and 
asks us to " suppose that it was in a vision that 
the comparison of the bread and wine of a 
banquet to the body and blood of the Lord 
came before St. Paul.""^ It appears, however, 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES iii 

that we are asked to believe that much more 
than a "comparison" came before St. Paul; 
we are asked to believe that a vision of a scene 
on the last evening of the Lord's life came 
before him, and that so vividly that he accepted 
it for genuine history, though (by the hypo- 
thesis) he had never heard a word of any such 
scene from the disciples whom he had met 
with after his conversion. Further, we are 
asked to believe that Paul, the object 
of so much suspicion to a large portion of 
the brethren, succeeded in imposing his 
vision as sober fact upon the whole Church, 
Jewish and Gentile alike, at a time when many 
men were still living who had been with the 
Lord during His whole ministry, until the time 
when He was taken up into heaven. This 
can scarcely be said to be a plausible hypo- 
thesis. Further, we are told ''^ that " the pagan 
ceremonies which offered the closest parallel to 
the sacred feast of the Corinthian Epistle were 
certainly the Mysteries," and that "the central 
point of the ceremonial at Eleusis appears to 
have been a sacred repast of which the initiated 
partook, and by means of which they had com- 



112 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

munion with the gods." If St. Paul had a 
vision of a sacred feast instituted by Christ, 
it is surely infinitely more probable that his 
imagination would be influenced by his remem- 
brance of the breaking of bread and the bless- 
ing of cups in the Passover, with which he had 
been familiar from childhood, than by the 
Mysteries of Eleusis, of which he could have 
known nothing but the current gossip ; for it is 
not suggested, and it would in any case be 
incredible, that he was initiated. But further, 
if there is anything certain about the Eleusinian 
Mysteries, it is that " the central point of the 
ceremonial " was a drama. The only passage 
referred to in confirmation of the statement in 
the text is Clemens Alex. Cohort, ad Gentes, 
p. 1 8 (Potter). But neither there nor elsewhere 
do we find anything described in the smallest 
degree resembling the Breaking of the Bread 
and the Blessing of the Cup. In the passage 
cited Clement is speaking of the catchword of 
the Eleusinian Mystce, which relates apparently 
solely to the initiatory ceremonies : " I fasted, 
I drank the cyceon, I took out of the chest, 
after tasting I put away in the basket (or vase), 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 113 

and from the basket into the chest." ^° The 

same phrase is given in Latin by Arnobius 

(Adv. Nation, v. 26, p. 198, ed. Reifferscheid), 

where the words are said to be " symbola quce 

rogati sacrorum in acceptionibus respondetis." 

This might very well mean that the recital of 

these words was held to prove that the person 

who uttered them had passed the preliminary 

stage of initiation. Lobeck takes them to be a 

response which the candidates were taught to 

utter. In any case they describe something 

distinct from, and preliminary to, the "sacrorum 

acceptio," which is no doubt correlative to ?; t?}9 

TeXerrj'i ■7rapdSoat<; in Theon, and " traditio 

sacrorum " in Apuleius. At the time when the 

postulant drank the cyceon, and so forth, he 

was not fully initiated. He was taught to refer 

to the preliminary ceremony at the time of the 

delivery of the sacra, which again led on to the 

highest stage, eVoTrreta, or full vision. The 

drinking of the cyceon, with its accompanying 

rites, was thus as different as possible from the 

Christian Communion, which is the highest 

privilege of the reXeioi, or fully initiated. 

Dr. Hatch also refers to the drinking of the 

I 



114 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

cyceon as a kind of communion. "Some- 
times," he says,*^^ "the baptized received the 
communion at once after baptism, just as those 
who had been initiated at Eleusis proceeded at 
once, after a day's fast, to drink of the mystic 
KVKediv, and to eat of the sacred cakes." There 
is no doubt that in the period with which we 
are concerned the neophyte received the Holy 
Communion immediately after baptism, and that 
fasting. There is also no doubt that the 
votaries at Eleusis, as we have seen, partook of 
the drink called kvkcoov, and of certain mystic 
cakes taken from a chest or casket, but that this 
ceremony was in any way a communion is by 
no means evident. It seems to have taken 
place once for all, as appears above, at initia- 
tion ; the phrase is not irivo), but eTriov rov 
KVKeoiva, a form of speech which could scarcely 
be used except of an isolated act. In the myth 
of the origin of the custom of drinking the 
cyceon it marks the end of Demeter's sorrow 
and the beginning of a brighter life. It was 
probably, therefore, intended to symbolise the 
fuller and more cheering life for which the initi- 
ated might hope. It is, in fact, much more 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 115 

analogous to the milk and honey which were 
put to the lips of the newly baptized than to the 
"chalice of the grapes of God." In truth, it is 
a kind of perversity to seek a precedent for 
Holy Communion in the mystic draught of 
cyceon when the earth is full of true and real 
precedents. For the essence of the Sacrament 
is not merely partaking of a common cup or a 
common meal, but feasting upon a sacrifice in 
the benefit of which all the worshippers have a 
share, and this was found everywhere, among 
Jews and Gentiles alike. It needs no words of 
mine to show that the Hebrews feasted upon 
their sacrifices. In the fifteenth century a 
learned Jew, Abarbanel,^" noticed that the 
Gentiles also followed the same custom. In 
ancient times, he says, whoever sacrificed to 
idols made a feast upon the sacrifice. This 
assertion is perfectly in accordance with the 
results of modern research. But here let me 
use the admirable words of Dr. Jevons^^: 
" Sacrifice and the sacramental meal which 
followed on it are institutions which are, or 
have been, universal. The sacramental meal 
wherever it exists testifies to man's desire for 



ii6 HULSEAN LECTURES LECT. 

the closest union with his God, and to his con- 
sciousness of the fact that it is upon such union 
alone that right social relations with his fellow- 
men can be set. But before there can be a 
sacramental meal there must be a sacrifice. 
That is to say, the whole human race for thou- 
sands of years has been educated to the con- 
ception that it was only through a divine 
sacrifice that perfect union with God was pos- 
sible for man. At times the sacramental con- 
ception of sacrifice appeared to be about to 
degenerate entirely into the gift theory ; but 
then, in the sixth century B.C., the sacramental 
conception woke into new life, this time in the 
form of a search for a perfect sacrifice — a 
search which led Clement and Cyprian to try 
all the mysteries of Greece in vain. But of all 
the great religions of the world it is the Chris- 
tian Church alone which is so far heir of all the 
ages as to fulfil the dumb, dim expectation of 
mankind ; in it alone the sacramental meal 
commemorates, by ordinance of its Founder, the 
divine sacrifice which is a propitiation for the 
sins of all mankind." 

The whole earth was covered with altars and 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 117 

sacrificing priests. It is certain that in the 
second century the Holy Table came to be 
regarded as an altar ®^ {dvcnaaTrjpiov), and the 
celebration of the Holy Eucharist as a sacrifice. 
I cannot here attempt to decide the great 
controversy, whether this sacrificial idea was 
contained in the primitive institution of the 
Eucharist ; let us suppose that, as is frequently 
alleged, the conception of sacrifice was brought 
in by external influences.^^ In this case, we 
may ask why it should be supposed that this 
great change is due to the influence of the 
Mysteries ? For in the Mysteries sacrifice was 
by no means a distinctive part of the cere- 
monial, while in the public religions, whether 
Jewish or pagan, it formed the very essence of 
worship, to which everything else led up. If 
it is necessary to suppose external influences, 
surely it is most natural to refer the phenomena 
to those which were before the eyes of all men 
rather than to those which were performed in 
secret. 

"It seems likely that the use of hl-n-Tvxa — 
tablets commemorating benefactors or departed 
saints — was a continuation of a similar usage of 



iiS HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

the religious associations."^'^ The word is so 
common in later Greek, and designated so 
familiar an object, that no argument can be 
drawn merely from its use by both pagans and 
Christians, Only a single instance is adduced 
by Dr. Hatch of its use in a pagan association, 
and that in the latter part of the second century, 
so that the reading of the names of persons to 
be commemorated from the foldinof tablets 
called diptychs can scarcely have been known 
as a conspicuous feature in pagan religious 
associations, and therefore (one would think) 
can hardly have been the cause of diptychs 
being introduced into Christian worship. That 
pagans did commemorate their dead, and that 
such commemorations were an important part 
of their religion, is well known, and this may 
perhaps have quickened the natural desire of 
Christians to remember their departed when 
they commemorated the death of Him, the 
first-born from the dead, who died and lived 
that He might be Lord both of dead 
and living. But the hypothesis is scarcely 
necessary to account for that which seems 
to spring naturally enough from the views 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 119 

of life and death prevalent in the early 
Church. 

When we compare pagan and Christian 
Mysteries, we must take into account not only 
resemblances, or fancied resemblances, in par- 
ticular points, but their general tone and influ- 
ence. Were the pagan Mysteries in general 
purifying and ennobling forces ? A modern 
writer ^^ says that "the majority of them had 
the same aims as Christianity itself — the aim of 
worshipping a pure God, the aim of living a 
pure life, and the aim of cultivating the spirit of 
brotherhood." I am quite disposed to believe 
that this is in the main true. That they 
attempted to cover the ground which the 
Christian Church in time completely occupied, 
to provide purification for the impure, worship 
such as to raise in the soul a truly religious 
emotion and aspiration, and the hope of bliss in 
a future life, I have said already. I am sure I 
may say further that no candid inquirer believes 
that the Eleusinian Mysteries, at any rate, 
shared in as they were by practically all the 
citizens of no mean city, commended as they 
were by some of the noblest souls of the ancient 



I20 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

world, were debasing and degrading rites, 
Cicero seems to regard the Mysteries of Eleusis 
and Samothrace as means of learning the 
secrets of nature rather than of the gods,^^ and 
this we may believe was the prevalent opinion 
with men of Cicero's class ; but as civilising 
institutions he thinks no praise too high for 
them ; the Mysteries were the source whence 
gentleness and humanity flowed over men and 
states which before were sunk in savagery 
and rudeness.'*-^ An epigrammatist ^° of the time^ 
of Augustus begs his friend, if he can travel 
nowhere else, at least to go to Athens, that he 
may see the solemn rites of Demeter. When 
a law of a religious association bears on its 
front, " Let no one enter the most venerable 
assembly unless he be pure and pious and 
good" (I use the words of Dr. Hatch),^^ we 
have no right to doubt that it was really 
intended to promote amendment of life. Yet 
it would also be an error to suppose that the 
words used had precisely the same meaning 
which they have for Christians ; no words have, 
in fact, been more transformed by the spirit of 
Christ. The law requires that the candidate 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 



121 



92 



for admission should be dya66<i, evae/Sij'?, dyv6<i.- 
Now dya06<i is the term constantly used in in- 
scriptions to describe one who had done some 
service to the State ; built some public edifice, 
perhaps, or given of his wealth in time of need. 
It means that the man was public-spirited and 
presumably well-born. It scarcely refers at all 
to the qualities which constitute what we should 
call goodness. euo-e/S?;? is also a word very 
often found in inscriptions, designating the man 
who fulfils exactly all the rites of his pagan 
cult. It scarcely indicates, unless by implica- 
tion, the disposition of heart and mind which 
we call " pious " or "devout." The remaining 
word, ciyvo^, means " chaste." We know from 
other sources that the candidates for initiation 
were required to render themselves, formally 
and materially, pure and chaste by maintaining 
for a few days continence and abstinence from 
certain kinds of food. Of what we should call 
chastity the pagan world had little conception, 
and their purity much more resembled that of the 
Levitical than that of the Christian law. Still, 
the founders of Mysteries wished for purity in 
their disciples as they understood purity. 



122 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

The same writer whom I have just quoted 
admits that "there were elements in some of 
[the Mysteries] from which Christianity recoiled, 
and against which the Christian Apologists 
used the language of strong invective." ^^ But 
it is not only Christian Apologists who use the 
language of invective ; a series of ethnic writers 
have also deplored the evils which, if not in- 
herent in the Mysteries, at any rate clustered 
round them. It was probably inevitable that 
round the really venerable institutions there 
should spring up impostors who pretended to 
convey the benefits of initiation on easier terms. 
It is to such for the most part that the denun- 
ciations of ancient moralists apply. Socrates in 
Plato ^^ says, with a certain irony, that they 
were clever fellows who invented the mystic 
saying that in the world beyond the grave the 
uninitiated should lie in the mire, while the 
initiated should dwell with the gods ; but he 
himself holds that they only are truly initiated 
who have given themselves to right philosophy. 
And again he speaks with an accent of contempt 
of the heaven which was idly dreamed by the 
Orphic poet, a heaven of garlands and goblets, 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 123 

as if perpetual drunkenness were the meet 
reward for a life of virtue. He denounces 
the wandering Orpheotelestae, who claimed by 
mere ceremonies and incantations to save men 
— nay, even to save the dead — from the con- 
sequences of their transgressions, in terms not 
very unlike those in which Luther denounced 
the vagabond vendors of indulgences.^^ In the 
Laws which he proposed for his ideal polity 
Plato forbids private cults altogether."'' Demos- 
thenes^^ thinks it worth while to cast it in the 
teeth of his great rival, that his mother had 
practised initiations, while Aeschines himself 
served as her acolythe. Plutarch, ^^ a very 
religious man, admired the moral elevation 
which he found in the rites of I sis, but he has 
unbounded contempt for the hangers-on of 
Serapis worship, whom he regards as not less 
base than the emissaries of the Mater Deorum. 
The history of the word op'yia, our "orgies," is 
not uninstructive. Denoting originally merely 
things done, with the connotation that they 
were done with a religious purpose, it came to 
designate in the first century after Christ certain 
frantic secret rites which were believed to be 



124 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

accompanied by great impurity, and that even 
in Athens itself, the seat of the most venerable 
Mysteries. There must have been some reason 
for the association of op'yia with immorality. 

I think it may be said that every Christian 
writer who speaks of the Mysteries while they 
were still celebrated, denounces them in no 
measured terms as promoting impurity. Never- 
theless, as to a portion of their charges, it is 
evident that they confused mythology with 
worship. It is the crimes and immoralities of 
gods and goddesses, as they appeared in legend 
and poetry, which they especially attack ; as 
Lobeck acutely observes, they had no doubt 
that gods who were believed to have acted 
foully were also foully worshipped.^" But the 
inference will not hold, for we have reason to 
think that one object of the Mysteries was to 
veil under a decent covering of allegory such 
stories of the gods as shocked the more 
thoughtful worshippers. But another charge of 
Christian writers — that in some of the Mysteries 
at least indecent symbols were exhibited — is, I 
believe, not to be refuted. Yet even here we 
must not judge the pagans by a standard 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 125 

derived from many centuries of Christianity. 
When symbols which to us would be in the 
highest degree offensive were commonly seen 
in streets and in gardens, the exhibition of 
similar objects in the Mysteries did not imply 
any special depravity. All we can say is that, 
in this respect at least, the standard of purity 
in the initiated did not rise above that of the 
world about them. And this is probably true 
generally. Until Christ came, it may be 
doubted whether any religious association ever 
succeeded in raising its members greatly above 
the conventional standard of morality which 
prevailed among those with whom they lived. 

But when we have made all possible allow- 
ance for the prejudices of Christian witnesses, 
we must remember that they wrote while the 
Mysteries were an existing force. Some of 
them, we know, had been initiated and knew 
of what they spoke. Some, as Clement and 
Origen, by no means decried paganism as a 
whole ; it also, like Judaism, was a dispensation 
of God. They may not have attacked the 
Mysteries intelligently, but there must have 
been some reason for their attacking them at 



126 HULSEAN LECTURES lect. 

all. The special horror which they inspired 
cannot have been wholly without a cause. 
And we may be sure that the assembly of 
crowds of both sexes at nocturnal celebrations 
of an exciting kind cannot have been exactly 
favourable to purity. Even with the far greater 
restraints imposed by Christianity it was soon 
found that nocturnal assemblies of excited wor- 
shippers at the tomb of a saint were produc- 
tive of evil. 

Whatever may have been their influence, 
the ancient Mysteries are gone. They made 
their attempt, not probably a wholly vain 
attempt, to gild the life of man by the gleams of 
hope ofa life to come, better, purer, and brighter 
than that which now we lead. But they were 
essentially a part of the old paganism, and as 
the antique culture died away the rites and 
customs which it brought forth faded and 
vanished also. In the third and fourth cen- 
turies after Christ we see it in its death-throes. 
Paganism is smitten with a senile decay, while 
youthful Christianity is strong with a god-given 
strength. Before the day-spring from on high 
the torches of the mystic rite pale their ineffec- 



IV HULSEAN LECTURES 127 

tual fires. The darkness is passing away, and the 
true hght already shineth. Earth-born clouds 
still hang round the Sun of Righteousness ; 
clouds even in our own land where Christ has 
been preached for many generations ; clouds 
darker still in the lands where the very name 
of Christ is unknown ; yet we know that the 
dawn has begun ; we know that the Day-spring 
from on high hath visited us ; and we doubt 
not that it will shine more and more unto the 
perfect day. 



NOTES 



K 



NOTES 

1. I am quite aware of the difficulty, perhaps impos- 
sibility, of defining "life," and of .the objections which 
have been raised to the employment of such terms as 
"vital force," and the like. The illustration in the text, 
however, does not depend upon any theory as to the nature 
and origin of life, but simply on the recognition of a pro- 
perty as to which all are agreed. " Every living body 
possesses the power of taking into its interior certain 
materials foreign to those composing its own substance, and 
of converting these into the materials of which its body is 
built up. This constitutes the process of "assimilation," 
and it is in virtue of this that living bodies grow'''' (H. 
Alleyne Nicholson, Elements of Biology, p. 2). The con- 
clusions of Pasteur and Tyndall as to the production of 
life from life, and from no other source, seem to remain 
unshaken. 

2. See, for instance, Justin Martyr, Apologia, i. c. 46 ; 
ii. 10, 13; Clement Alex., Strom, i. pp. 331, 337, ed. 
Potter ; Origen in Genesin, Hom. xiv. c. 3. Lactantius, in 
a noteworthy passage {Instit. vii. 7), declares that almost 
all truth was to be found dispersed through the various 
philosophies, but that Christianity separated the good from 
the bad, and wrought it into an intelligible whole. 

2*. Ernest Havet, Le Christia?iisme et ses Origines. 



132 HULSEAN LECTURES 

When M. Havet says (i. p. vi.) that "si nous etudions en elles- 
meme la pensee Chretienne et la vie Chretienne, nous n'y 
trouverons guere que ce qu'il y avait dans la philosophic et 
dans la religion des Grecs-Romains, ou ce qui a du en sortir 
naturcllement par I'effet des influences sous lesquelles le 
monde s'est trouve place precisement vers la date de I'ere 
nouvelle," he states the case far too strongly ; in fact, 
Christianity caused a revolution in thought and life ; it did 
not derive its existence from the current religions and 
philosophies, however much it may have drawn from them. 
What Renan {Etudes d'Hist. Rel., p. i88) says of the 
influence of Judaism on early Christianity is true also 
of the Hellenic influence : " On me montrerait en detail 
toutes les maximes de I'Evangile dans Moise et les 
prophetes, que je maintiendrais encore que I'y a dans 
la doctrine du Christ un esprit nouveau et un cachet 
original." It is this "esprit nouveau" which M. Havet 
takes little account of. Edmund Spiess, in the Intro- 
duction to his Logos Spermaticos (Leipzig, 1871), gives 
a good account of the relation of pagan thought to 
Christianity. 

3. Augustin, Retradationes^ i- 13 : "Res ipsa quae nunc 
religio Christiana nuncupatur erat apud antiquos nee defuit 
ab initio generis humani, quousque Christus veniret in 
carnem, unde vera religio quae jam erat coepit appellari 
Christiana." 

4. Essay 2 d^, " Of Innovation." 

5. See De Tocqueville's LAncien Regime et la Rcvohi- 
tion. English translation by H. Reeve. 

6. On this point see Dr. H. A, A. Kennedy's excellent 
treatise on the Sources of JSl nv Testament Greek (Edinburgh, 

1895)- 



NOTES 



13; 



7. La religion Romaine d^Anguste aux Antonins, 
vol. i. p. 72. 

8. The statue at Paneas which Eusebius {Hist. Eccl. 
vii. 18) describes, was probably erected in honour of 
Hadrian or some other emperor, with the inscription, tw 
(TijiTrjpi. See Hefele's Beitrlige Z2ir Kirchengeschichte, ii. 
257 ; Smith and Cheetham, Did. of Christ. Atitiq. i. 877. 
Wobbermin {Kirche7igeschichtliche Studien, 15, t^t^, 105) 
points out that the gods of the Mysteries were commonly 
spoken of as o-wxTypes. 

9. Abundant instances of the persistence of ancient 
harvest-customs may be seen in Mr. J. G. Frazer's Golden 
Bough. 

10. In this it is not intended to deny that many of the 
Gnostic teachers were on the whole superior in literary 
cultivation to those of the Christians, or that they were 
able and imaginative, or that they loved a certain splendour 
in worship. Early Christian teachers recognised their 
ability and popular endowments. Origen speaks with 
respect of the Gnostic commentator Heracleon, though he 
does not accept his conclusions ; and Jerome (on Hosea ii. 
10; Opera vi. i, 106 ed. Vail.) says: " NuUus potest 
haeresim struere nisi qui ardens ingenii est et habet dona 
naturae quae a deo artifice sunt creata ; talis fuit Valentinus, 
talis Marcion, quos doctissimos legimus ; talis Bardesancs, 
cujus etiam philosophi admirantur ingenium." What is 
maintained is that, with all its superficial Hellenism, the 
root-idea of Gnosticism is un-Hellenic. The notion of evil 
inherent in matter, so that the deity must be several times 
diluted before he can come in contact with it, is surely not 
Greek ; Plato's demiurgus is something very different from 
the demiurgus of the Gnostics, though they probably 



134 HULSEAN LECTURES 

borrowed the term from him. Wobbermin, however, 
(^Kirchengeschichtliche Studiefi, p. 7 3 ff., supposes that both 
Plato and the Gnostics borrowed the word from the 
Orphic mysticism. Nor does the Gnostic appeal to an 
esoteric tradition harmonise with a philosophy which, 
like that of the Greeks, brought everything to the test of 
reason. It is Oriental. A. Harnack {Dogmengeschichte, i. 
165) applies to Gnosticism the text, "The voice is Jacob's 
voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau," meaning to 
imply that Gnosticism, in spite of appearances, is at bottom 
Hellenic. I should have thought rather that, in spite of its 
Hellenic skin, it remained in substance Oriental. Its voice 
is the voice of the East. 

11. S. H. 'Qvitch.er, Some Aspects of the Greek Genius, 
p. 1/ 

12. After the time of Alexander the Great, says 
Schwegler {History of Fhiiosophy, p. 143, Stirling's Trans.), 
"a feeling of unhappiness, of unappeasable longing, took 
the place of that fair unity between spirit and nature which 
had been characteristic of the better periods of Grecian 
political and intellectual life. A last desperate attempt to 
reach the alienated divine life . . by means of transcendent 
speculation and ascetic mortification, by means of ecstasy 
and swoon, was made by Neo-Platonism ; it failed, and 
ancient philosophy sank in complete exhaustion, ruined in 
the attempt to conquer dualism. Christianity took up the 
problem." 

13. Marquardt - Wissowa, Romische Staatsverwaitung, 
Bd. iii. p. 209 (2'^= Aufl.). The whole of Marquardt's 
treatise on Das Sacralivesen is highly instructive. 

1 4. " Si haut qu'on remonte dans I'histoire de la race 
indo-europeenne ... on ne voit pas que cette race ait 



NOTES 135 

jamais pense qu'apr^s cette courte vie tout fut fini pour 
Thomme. Les plus anciennes generations, bien avant qu'il 
y eut des philosophes, ont cru a une seconde existence 
apres celle-ci. Elles ont envisage la mort, non comme une 
dissolution de I'etre, mais comme un simple changement de 
vie." — Fustel de Coulanges, La Cite Antique, c. i. 

15, The terms commonly used by the Greeks to desig- 
nate what we commonly call Mysteries were TeAerat, opyia, 
fxvorTTJpta. In Latin the word " initia " is used. These 
Greek names were used generally for all kinds of mystic 
rites, purifications, atonements, and witchcrafts (see Lobeck, 
p. Sg/), but in a more special sense for a particular class 
of institutions and festivals, including many rites, such as 
the Eleusinian in the older Hellenic period, and the Isiac 
under the Empire. The word reAer?; occurs first in Hesiod 
(fr. 29, p. 211, ed. Goettling), where it is applied to initia- 
tion into the Bacchic Mysteries ; opyta is used of the Eleu- 
sinian in the Homeric hymn to Demeter (273, 476); 
Ixva-Ti'ipia is found in somewhat later authorities, and is used 
specially of the Attic Eleusinia, in which iiiKpd and /xeydXa 
fjLva-T-i'jpta are distinguished. The word p^vcrr-qpiov is akin to 
/xt'eu', to close the eyes or lips, /^vetv and p.velcrdaL are 
used to designate the initiating or being initiated into a 
mystic secret, which is called p^va-Trfpiov. The plural 
p.va-Trjpta (first in Herod. ii. 51) is used sometimes for a 
particular assemblage of secret rites, regarded as a whole, 
sometimes for the objects of the secret worship, sometimes 
for the ritual acts themselves. The leading thought in 
pLva-rripia and the kindred words is concealment from the 
uninitiated, and from this its derivatives in modern languages 
have come to connote something in itself obscure and 
difficult to comprehend, a notion which is not necessarily 



136 HULSEAN LECTURES 

contained in the Greek. In the New Testament a fivari]- 
piov is a secret, something which is only known by being 
communicated, as opposed to things which are open to any 
one to discover. The revelation of Jesus Christ as the 
Saviour of the world, for instance, is fxva-Ttjpiov xpo^'o'? 
at'cov/ots creo-iy/xevov (fiavepwOev 8e vvv (Rom. xvi. 25, 26), and 
to this sense probably all the instances occurring in the New 
Testament may be referred (see T. K. Abbott, Essays 
chiefly on the Original Texts of Old and New Testainent, 
p. 88 ff}^. Clement of Alexandria {Protrept. i. 10) says 
that the Baptist preached IVa tt/s dXi]6eias to ^ws, 6 Aoyos 
Twi' Trpo(fii]TLKii'>v atvty/xaTwv, Tijv jxv(TTiKt^v awoXva-i^Tai criojr')/v 
ei'ayyeAtoi' yei'o/xevos : and many other instances are found 
of the application of /xvo-ry/ptov and its derivatives to the 
now published secret of the Gospel. Further, it is applied 
to the Christian sacraments, as being institutions not 
derived from natural reason, but founded by the divine 
Master for the use and benefit of those who are His ; that 
is, revealed secrets ; and also as being reserved, like 
many ancient rites, for the use of the initiated only. To 
take one instance out of thousands, it was evidently the 
common designation of the Eucharist when the Council of 
Laodicea (c. 7) permitted certain heretics, on reciting the 
orthodox Creed and receiving the Chrism, KotvLovdv no 
jxva-TrjpLO) Tw aytw. And with the conception of divine 
ordination and of limitation to the use of the faithful was 
no doubt associated that of grace imparted in ways above 
human thought. 

The word 6pyia, on the other hand, connected as it is 
with epyov, eopya, as eopTi'j is with epSw (Lobeck, p. 305, 
note e) designates in its strict acceptation ritual acts simply, 
without any notion of secrecy ; but being especially applied 



NOTES 137 

to the frantic dances and gesticulations of the Bacchanals 
and the like, it acquired the sense which is perpetuated in 
our word " orgies." TeAer?/ has also originally a general 
sense of something accomplished, but it came specially to 
designate the act, or series of acts, which gave a kind of 
consecration to the candidate, and fitted him for admission 
to the secret. And as such a consecration was regarded 
as freeing a man from the sins of his past life, reAerat 
were often regarded as equivalent to purifications (see 
Plato on the Orpheotelestae, Demosthenes on Aeschines). 
TeAcTv; also came into use among philosophers for initia- 
tion into the highest and most recondite truths which they 
had to teach (Lobeck, p. 124 ff). If reAen; means com- 
pletion, " initia " means beginnings, elements, or first prin- 
ciples. It is applied to rites which are regarded as the 
elements of, or the introduction to, a further revelation. So 
Cicero {De Legibus, ii. 14, 36) "initia ut appellentur, ita 
revera principia vitae cognovimus." Varro {De Re Rusiica, 
iii. I ; in Pauly, Real-Encyd. v. 318) connects the word in 
a noteworthy manner with the worship of Ceres. Pointing 
out that agriculture is the foundation of domestic life and 
gentler manners, he adds, "cui consentaneum est quod initia 
vocantur potissimum ea quae Cereri fiunt sacra." We may 
say that in the words jxva-TyjpM, opyta, reAerat we have the 
leading characteristics of the Mysteries — secrecy, emotion, 
and edification. 

There were also societies very nearly akin to the Mys- 
teries called OcaaoL and epavoi. The former seem always 
to have been formed mainly for the purpose of worship, 
especially the worship of some deity not recognised by the 
State. The worshippers of Serapis in Athens, for instance, 
formed a private association for the cult of their god, and 



138 HULSEAN LECTURES 

were called ^apairiaa-Tai The epavoi were frequently 
formed purely for civic and social ends, but in many of 
these also religious ceremonies occupied a prominent place. 
See Foucart, Associatmis Religieuses chez les Grecs, ^. 2 ff. 

16. Lobeck, Aglaophamus, p. 270. 

1 7. References to the teaching in the Mysteries are found 
in the following passages : — 

6X/3ios ocTTis I'Swj' eKelva 
KoiXav elcfLv virb x^f^''".' 
6l8ev fj.h j3l6tov reXevTav 
dldef de OLoadoTov dpxoiv ' 

Pindar, Fr. Qprjvoi 8; p. 375 Donaldson. 

(is rpLaoKpioL 
Kecvoi ^porQi' ot ravra depxOevres Te\7) 
/ioXoutr' is Aidov roh di yap fxovois (KeT 
^7jv 'iffTL, TOis S'aXXoicrt trdvT iKel /ca/cd. 

Sophocles, Fr. Triptol. 719 Dind. Compare Oedip. Col. 
1050; Aristophanes, i?a;^^^, 145 j^ 

18. In Synesius, Orat. p. 48; Fragment 15 Rose. 

19. Doubtless Welcker is right when he says {Griech. 
Gotterlehre, ii. 536) that the essence of the Eleusinian rite 
was in the drama and its accompaniments ; it was through 
it that the mystic effect was wrought. The very name 
" Epoptae," which designates those admitted to the highest 
degree of initiation, shows that the beholding of wondrous 
sights was that which constituted their privilege. 

20. Lobeck {Aglaophamus, p. 47) compares the feelings 

of the newly initiated to those of the young Protestant 

Mortimer in Schiller's Maria Stuart when he was present 

for the first time at a stately act of Roman Catholic worship, 

in which, in 

"die leuchtende Verklarung, 
Das Herrlichste, das Hochste gegenwartig 
Vor den cntzuckten Sinnen sich bewegtc." 



NOTES 139 

21. One of the charges against Alcibiades was that he 
had parodied the Mysteries, and especially that he had 
shown the sacred objects to his boon companions (e'xovTa 
(TToXrjv oldvTrep Upo(^avTrj<i e^wF SetKvi'et ra tepa, Plutarch, 
Alcibiades, 22). See further in Lobeck's Aglaophamiis, 
p. 48/: 

22. Descriptio Graeciae, i. 38. 7. Similarly in Plu- 
tarch's Symposiac. (Problem 8), the conversation is broken 
off when it seems to touch on Pythagorean secrets, a 
Pythagorean being present. See Lobeck, u.s. 66 ff. 

23. See J. G. Frazer, The Goldeti Bough. 

24. In what I have said of Demeter, Persephone, and 
Dionysus I have generally followed Preller, Defnefer und 
Persephone, and Griechische Mythologie (ed. Robert). 

25. Demeter was commonly regarded by the Greeks as 
yri fj^i'iri]p, the earth- mother, and the epithet which they 
applied to her — au^i^aA>;§, ;)(Ao7/(^opos, KapiroTroios, <TTa)(vr]- 
(fiopos, crtro^o/oos, and the like — show clearly that they 
thought of her as the fertile earth. See Max Miiller, Con- 
tributions to the Science of Mythology, p. 535 y^ (1897). 
This etymology of the ancient Greeks does not seem in 
itself improbable, as it is almost certain that the Sa found 
in Doric passages in tragedy represents -yri. Another 
etymology, found in the Etymologicon Alagnum (265, 54), 
and advocated by AhxQns, Fhilologus, xxii. 207 (1866), and 
by several other philolog'Sts after him, makes /\')]p,i]Ty]p = 
A.rjp.op.rjTrjp, mother of the community, which corresponds 
well with her epithet ^€o-/xo<^o/3os. See Preller-Robert, 
Griech. Mythol. 747, n. 6. Another proposed etymology 
is from S^/at, Cretan form of ((.ml, barley. See Baumeister, 
Denhndler des klassischen Alterthui>is, \. 411. 

26. Eunapius, Vitae Sophistarum, p. 78, ed. Colon. 



I40 HULSEAN LECTURES 

See Preller in Pauly's Real- Ency clop. iii. 88. The results 
of the most recent researches in Eleusis are to be found in 
IIpaKTi/ca. T^s apyaioX. eraipia^, 1883. Plan of the founda- 
tions in Baumeister's Denkmdler, i. 477. 

27. There is an excellent account of the spread of the 
worship of Egyptian deities beyond Egypt by George 
Lafaye, Hisioire du culte des divinites d' Alexandrie hors 
de VEgypte (Paris, 1884). Foucart {Rcchcrches sur 
Vorigine et la nature des mystcres d'' Eleusis. Paris, 1895) 
contends that the Eleusinian Mysteries were derived from 
Egypt. His arguments are, however, by no means con- 
vincing as to the origin of the Mysteries, though they 
probably received some influence from Egypt in later 
times. 

28. Among the numerous books on the ancient 
Egyptian religion, may be mentioned Le Page Renouf, 
Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, as illustrated 
by the Religion of Ancient Egypt (Hibbert Lectures, 1879) \ 
J. Lieblein, Egyptian Religion (1884): H. Brugsch, 
Religion und Mythologie der altefi Agypter ; E. Lefebvre, 
L' Etude de la religion Egyptienne, in Revue de Phistoire 
des religions, 1886, vol. ii. 

29. Tibullus, i. 7, 25 j^ Brugsch, Religion imd Mytho- 
logie der alien Agypter, p. 621, referred to by J. G. Frazer, 
Golden Bough, i. 305/ Servius on Virgil, Georg. i. 166. 
Plutarch {Isis and Osiris, 35 ; i. 446 Diibner) says that 
the InavLKo. and NiiKxeAta in the Bacchic cult correspond 
to TO6S Aeyo/ievois OcriptSos 5ta(r7ra(r/i.ots xal Ta6S dvaf3ni)(Tecrt 
Kal TTttAiyyevecrtats. 

30. Diodorus Sic. Bibliotheca, i. 51. 

31. On union with Osiris, see Chantepie de la Saussaye, 
Religionsgeschichte,\. 2()if.; Wallis Budge, The Papyrus of A fii. 



NOTES 141 

32. These formularies are contained in the Book of the 
Dead. The best text is that pubHshed by ifedouard Naville, 
Das dgyptische Todtenbuch der xviii. bis xx. Dynastie 
(Berhn, 1886), well reviewed by Miss A. B. Edwards in the 
Academy, loth September 1887. See also A. E. Wallis 
Budge, Dzvellers on the Nile, ch. 9, and The Papyrus of Ani. 

■^l. See Seyffert-Nettleship-Sandys, Dictionary, p. 578. 

34. Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride, c. 66 ; p. 461 Diibner. 
See Lafaye, Divinites d'Agypte, p. 71. 

35. Metamorphoses, lib. xi. c. 2, 5. 

36. The work of T. Fabri, De Mithrae dei solis itivicti 
apiid Romanos cultu (1883), contains a valuable collection 
of the principal documents relating to Mithraism, and a 
list of Mithraic inscriptions. A still more complete 
collection is Cumont's Textes et 7noniiments figures relatifs 
aux mystcres de Mithra. An account of the principal 
Mithraic remains in England may be found in C. Well- 
beloved's Eburacicm (York, 1842). 

37. " Baudissin hat mit reichem und sorgfaltig geord- 
netem Material den Satz erharten wollen, das bei den Semiten 
die Baume nur als Zeichen der in der Natur sich offen- 
barenden lebenserzeugenden Gotteskraft verehrt wurden. . . . 
Wenn man nun auch diese erklarung nicht allgemein 
auf jeden Baumcultus anwenden kann, so ist sie doch 
gewiss fiir manche Erscheinungen die richtige. . . . Die 
Vorstellung der Verwandschaft zwischen dem animalischen 
und dem vegetabilischen Leben und Wachsthum . . . 
spricht sich aus in den Mythen welche Menschen aus 
Pflanzen oder Baumen entstehen lassen," — Chantepie de la 
Saussaye, Religionsgeschichte, i. 65. 

38. "A belief in another life is found among the lowest, 
as among the highest of human beings. Here the wish has 



142 IIULSEAN LECTURES 

clearly been father to the thought, and we need not look 
further to account for whatever coincidences may be pointed 
out. But when we find descriptions of heaven and hell, with 
punishments and rewards almost, nay altogether, identical, 
what shall we say ? Surely no more than that what was 
possible in the South was possible in the North. What 
was possible in India was possible in other countries also ; 
what occurred to the minds of Indian Rishis may have 
occurred to the minds of Pythagoras and Pherekydes also." 
— Max Miiller, Contributions., 8^2/. 

When the conception of the continued existence of 
the soul in another region is once reached, the further 
idea of a judgment of souls, of the blessedness of the good, 
and the punishment of the bad, is not far off. We find it 
from the most ancient times in Egypt, and it may have 
been thence that it was diffused in Europe ; but the sup- 
position is not necessary. 

39. Tatian, Oratio adv. Graecos^ c. 29. 

40. See Anrich, Mysterienwesen, pp. 37, 47. Wobber- 
min {St7idien, 105) says well on this subject, that " the moral 
seriousness of the New Testament conception of a-wTyjpia, 
its relation on the one hand to the power and dominion 
of sin, on the other to the redeeming love of the 
heavenly Father, has little or no analogy in the Greek 
Mysteries." 

41. Preller in Pauly, Real-Encydop. v. 336. 

42. Renan, J^tudes dliist. relig. 58. 

43. E. Hatch, Hibbert Lectures, p. 294. 

44. Lobeck, after noticing the application to philosophy 
of terms derived from the Mysteries, says very justly 
{Aglaophamus, p. 130): "Has omnes simihtudines si ad 
amussim exigere et, quidquid de una aliqua re, quae cum 



NOTES 143 

mysteriis comparatur, praedicari potest, illico ad ea ipsa 
transferre velimus, ad postremum eo deveniemus, ut 
initiatis non Theologiae solum rationem, sed quasi quan- 
dam artium et scientiarum encyclopaediam, ut nunc loqui 
solent, traditam esse confiteamur." See Anrich, Mysterien- 
wesen, p. 65. 

45. Cicero, Verr. iv. 59, c. 132 : "Hi qui hospites ad 
ea quae visenda sunt ducere solent et unumquodque osten- 
dere ; quos illi mystagogos vocant." See Lobeck, p. 30. 

46. Hatch, Hibbert Lectures, p, 295. 

47. Anrich, Mysterie?iwesen, p. 120^ The question, 
whether the words (ftiona-fxos and a-^payl'i were applied by the 
pagans to the Mysteries, is discussed at some length by Wob- 
bermin (Studien, 144^), who believes that the words " came 
to be used to designate Christian baptism not without the in- 
fluence of the Mysteries." He does not, however, produce 
any instance of the direct application of the word ^wTtcr/xos 
to pagan Mysteries, though there is no doubt of the fact 
that the sacred objects and acts were displayed to the 
initiated under a brilliant light. In the case of o-(^payts it 
does not seem to have occurred to him that the use of the 
word " signatae " in a pagan inscription of the third cen- 
tury hardly proves that the Christian use of o-f/jpayts by 
(e.g.) Hermas was derived from that of paganism ; or that 
TertuUian's application of the word " signare," with which 
he was familiar in the Christian Church, to a pagan rite, 
does not prove that the pagans of that time so applied it j 
or that a passage of Suidas, written in the eleventh century, 
in which no ancient authority is quoted, and which requires 
amending before it can be used, does not throw much light 
on the usage of the second century. 

48. Orat. 40, p. 639. 



144 nULSEAN LECTURES 

49. Justin Martyr is generally ridiculed for his state- 
ment that " wicked daemons " imitated the Eucharist in the 
Mysteries of Mithras. But in truth, though the Mithraic 
worship is no doubt older than Christianity, it is by no 
means impossible that in the second century after Christ 
the Mithraists may have assimilated their forms to those of 
the Christians. 

50. Hatch, Hibhert Lectures, p. 293. 

51. Clement Alexand. Protrept. ii. c. 22 ; Euseb. Dem. 
Evafig. V. Prooem. c. 1 7 ; Praeparatio, xv. i . It must be 
said, however, that many of the passages commonly cited 
relate rather to the licentiousness of the pagan mythology 
in general than to the Mysteries in particular. 

52. Schiirer, Geschichte des Jiidischen Vo/kes, ii. p. 357. 
" Es ist vor allem zu beachten, dass das Hauptzweck dieser 
Sabbatversammlungen in der Synagoge nicht der Gottes- 
dienst im engern Sinne, d. h. nicht die Anbetung war, 
sondern die religiose Unterweisung." Josephus tells us 
[Bell. Ji(d. vii. 3. 3) that the Jews in Antioch attracted to 
their assemblies iroXv ttXtjOos 'EAA'^vwv, and there are many 
similar testimonies. Schiirer, Ji.s. p. 558 _^ 

53. Pliny, Epist. x. 96 [al. 97]. 

54. Chrysostom in the 3rd Homily on Lazarus {Opera 
v. 652, ed. Montfaucon) speaks as if his auditors possessed, 
and could read, the scriptures. 

55. Basil, De Spiritu Sancto, c. 66 : tu ti^s €7r6KAr/o-ews 
p-rjixara eirl tyj dva8ei^£L rov aprov ri^s ev)(^api(rTia<i kcu tou 
7roT7]piov rr^s evAoyias rts tu)v ay'aov eyypacpoi'i t^piv Kura- 
AeAotTrevy 

56. Origen, c. Ce/sum, i. 7. Dr. Hatch does not seem 
to have noticed this passage, though he refers to this 
chapter, p. 293, n. i. 



NOTES 



145 



57. The same feeling also influenced pagans. "Parem 
noxam contraherent aures et linguae illae temerariae 
curiositatis/' says Apuleius, Metam. xi. 23. 

58. See Suicer, Thesaurus, s.v. KaTy]x^(o ; F. X. Funk, 
in T/teo/. Quar^a/sc/ir/f/ (Tubingen), 1883, p. 41 J\ 

59. Lobeck, Aglaophamus, p. 40. " Gradatim sacra 
percipi dicit et ex intervallo. Quid ad rem ? Nemo non 
eo quo intendit per gradus pervenit." * 

60. Hatch, Hibbert Lectm-es, p. 294. 

60*. Jerome {ad Laetai7i, 0pp. i. 672, ed. Vail), and 
apparently Jerome alone, gives the names of (seemingly) 
eight grades of Mithraic initiation — Corax, Nymphus, Miles, 
Leo, Perses, HeHos, Dromo, Pater — but the interpretation 
of the passage is very doubtful. The Corpus Tnscr. Lat. 
vi. 749-753 proves the existence of six classes, Leontica, 
Persica, Heliaca, Patrica, Gryfu, Hierocoracica. Tertullian 
mentions the grade of Miles (De Coro7ia, c. 15). See 
Anrich, Mysterienivesen, 45, note 3. Nonnus (Migne's 
Patrol. Grace, xxxvi. 989 ; quoted by Fabri, p. 62) 
speaks of the trials (KoAacrets), through which the postu- 
lants had to pass, as trials by fire and frost, by hunger 
and thirst, by much wayfaring, and such like ; and of such, 
he says, there were eighty. Such trials had obviously 
no resemblance to graduated instruction. (See further 
U.S. 1009-1012 ; 1072). 

61. Mathemat. i. p. iS (ed. Bull.), quoted by Lobeck, 

P- 38/ 

62. Clement's words are : rwv fiva-r-qpMv nZv irap. 
EAAt^ctcv <^PX^I' P'^v Ta Kaddpcria, KaOdirep koI ev Tois 
/Sapf^dpoi? TO XovTpov. jUera raura 8 ecrrt to, fUKpa 
IxvcTTT^pLa SiSacTKaXias VTroOea-iv e^^ovra Kal TrpoTrapacTKevTf^s 
Twv /xeAAorrwr. Strom. V. cc 71, 72, p. 689, Potter. 

L 



146 HULSEAN LECTURES 

The meaning of this passage is discussed by Lobeck, 
p. \\off. 

63. See Lobeck, p. 188^ Lucius in Apuleius (J/^'/rtw. 
xi. 28), supposed to be a very devout worshipper, fasted 
from animal food ten days. 

64. Rohde's Psyche, p. 368. 

65. Foucart, Associations religietises chez les Grecs, 
124/:, 165/: 

66. Theophrastus, Ckaracteres, 30 [al. 17]; Plutarch, 
De Si/perstitione, cc. 3, 6, 12, 13. Josephus {c. Apiofi. ii. 
22) saw the resemblance between the abstinences of the 
pagans and those of the Jews, except in that what was with 
the latter regular was with the former occasional and for 
a few days only. 

67. Apuleius, Metam. xi. 6, 21, t^-\i- 

68. De Praescriptionibus, c. 40 : " Tingit et ipse [dia- 
bolus] quosdam, utique credentes et fideles suos ; expia- 
tionem \ci]. expositionem] delictorum de lavacro repromittit, 
et, si adhuc memini Mithrae, signat ille in frontibus milites 
suos." (Leopold's text.) 

69. De Mithrae aptid Rom. cultu, p. 22 : "Falsa autem 
esse narrata constat. Valde enim abhorret a cultu arcano 
initiatos signis frontibus afifixis significare. " 

70. Aglaophamns, p. 188. 

71. de Symbolo, c. 2. 

72. Hatch, Hibbert Lectures, p. 298. 

73. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus, iv. 2. 26 ; Clement 
Alexand. Protrept. c. 2, §§ 15, 21, 22; Firmicus Mater- 
nus, De Errore Prflfa7i. Geiit. c. 18. Apuleius says {De 
Magia, c. 55) : " Sacrorum pleraque initia in Graecia parti- 
cipavi. Eorum quaedam signa et monumenta tradita mihi 
a sacerdotibus sedulo conservo." This clearly refers to 



NOTES 147 

material objects. When in another passage (c. 56) he says, 
" si quis forte adest eorundem solemnium mihi particeps, 
signum dato et audiat licet quae ego adservem," it seems 
more probable that he refers to a password or gesture. See 
Lobeck, 23/:, 705/!; Anrich, 29, 30. 

74. Hatch, Hibbert Lectures^ p. 298. 

75. Meta?n. xi. 23. 

76. See Smith and Cheetham's Did. of Chr. Antiq. 

P- 157- 

77. Hatch, Hibbert Lectures., p. 298. 

78. Percy Gardner, The Origin of the Lord's Supper, 
p. 7. 

79. Gardner, u.s., p. 17. 

80. The KVKewv was a kind of porridge. In Homer's 
time (//. xi. 638 ff) it was made of barley-meal, goats'- 
milk cheese, and Pramnian wine ; to which Circe added 
honey and magical herbs {Od. x. 234 ff.). But the 
KDKewv in the Homeric hymn to Demeter (208 /), which 
is almost certainly identical with that administered in the 
Mysteries, is composed of barley-meal, water, and penny- 
royal, without wine. The articles contained in the mystic 
chest are enumerated by Clement {Protrept. ii. 2, § 22), 
who had himself been initiated into several Mysteries 
(Euseb. Praepar. Evang. ii. 2, § 35), as follows : oXai Se 
Kttt at Ktcrrat ai fivarTiKai ; (Sel yap dTroyvjxvMcrac rot ayta 
auTWV Kal TO. apprjra e^eLTrtiv). ov o-7/cra/i,at ravra Kal TrvpafjitSes 
Kat ToAiJTrat Kal Troirava iroXvofKpaXa )^ov8pot re aAwv /cat 
SpaKwv, opytov Atorvcrou Bacrcrapouy ou^i Se poiai irpus TOicrSe 
Kal KpdSai., vdpO->]KiS re Kat kltto'l ; Trpos Se Kat (fidoh Kal 
firjKwves ; ravT eWtv avrwv ra dyia Kal TrpoaeTL rrj'i QefxtSos 
TO, diroppi-jTa crvfi/SoXa, opiyavov, Xvxvos, ^iff^os, Kxets 
ywatKetos, o eo-Ttc, evcfiyjfxois Kal ixxxttikw'; (Lireiv, p.opiov 



148 HULSEAN LECTURES 

yvvaLKehv. I have adopted the conjecture approved by 
Lobeck, KpdSat for K-paStat. In other respects the text is 
that of Klotz's ed. vol. i. p. 19. Sesame-cakes, wheat- 
cakes (if TTvpafiLs is formed from -n-vpos), balls (if they were 
farinaceous, which is doubted), round cakes, grains of salt, 
pomegranates, the cakes called (f)9ots, poppy - heads, and 
marjoram, might no doubt be tasted, though the effect, if 
they were all tasted at one time, might not be agreeable- 
Twigs of the fig-tree, stems of the giant-fennel, and ivy- 
leaves, might be more refractory. The hand-lamp, the 
sword, and the other object mentioned, must have been 
altogether impracticable. Whether there is anything in 
this strange mingle-mangle which can by any possibility 
have suggested the simple bread and wine of the Holy 
Communion my readers will judge. Lobeck {Aglaoph. 
p. 703) should be consulted on the passage ; Anrich (p. 29) 
refers to O. Jahn, Hermes, 3, 228. It may perhaps be 
doubted whether writers on the Mysteries have taken 
sufficient account of the atmosphere of jest and sport which 
surrounded at any rate the Eleusinian. And yet the word 
y€cj)vpc^eLv perpetuates the memory of the slang in which the 
votaries indulged as they passed in procession to Eleusis ; 
and the bathing of a multitude in the sea can scarcely have 
been a very solemn spectacle. If it were not for Eusebius's 
statement that Clement was initiated, we might easily 
imagine that his eTrtor rov KVKeQva ktX was a mere jingle 
current in the streets of Athens, not to be taken more 
seriously than similar phrases in Aristophanes. 

81. Hibbert Lechires, p. 298. 

82. In Cudworth's True Notiofi of the Lord's Supper, 
Works, 'w. p. 225, ed. Birch. 

83. Introduction to the History of Religion, p. 414. It 



NOTES 149 

may be observed that the " Cyprian " of this extract is not 
the well-known bishop of Carthage, but (seemingly) Cyprian 
of Antioch. 

84. See Smith and Cheetham's Dictionary of Ckristia?i 
Anfiq. p. 60. 

85. There is a passage respecting sacrifice in Dr. 
Hatch's Hibbert Lectures (p. 300), which is so curious as to 
be worth citing. " There is one more symbolical rite in 
that early Easter sacrament, the mention of which is often 
suppressed — a lamb was offered on the altar." The 
general authority given for the whole passage is " Mabillon, 
Com. Praev. ad Ord. Rom. ; Musaeum Ital. II. xciv,," and 
on the passage just cited, it is noted that this sacrifice 
" was one of the points to which the Greeks objected in 
the discussions of the ninth century." Mabillon himself, 
in the passage referred to, points out that the Greek charge, 
that the Pope offered a lamb on the altar, arose from a 
mere blunder, the blessing of a lamb for eating having been 
taken for an offering. The lamb was in fact roasted before 
it was brought for the papal benediction (Migre's Patro- 
logia Lat. Ixxviii. 907, 1044). Pope Nicholas I. (in 
Hardouin's Co?iciiia, v. 309 d) says that this sacrifice 
is a lie of the Greeks ; such a lie, adds Aeneas, Bishop of 
Paris {lb. 318 a), as only a fool would believe. It was 
therefore certainly not practised "as late as the ninth 
century " in which Nicholas and his correspondent lived. 

86. Hatch, Hibbert Lectures, p. 305. 

87. Hatch, U.S. p. 291. 

88. Cicero, Nat. Dear. i. 42, § 119: " Omitto 
Eleusina . . praetereo Samothraciam," in which " rerum 
magis natura cognoscitur quam deorum." 

89. Verr. v. 72, c. 187: "Ceres et Libera, quarum 



ISO HULSEAN LECTURES 

sacra longe maximis et occultissimis caerimoniis continentur, 
a quibus initia vitae atque victus, morum, legum, mansue- 
tudinis, humanitatis hominibus ac civitatibus data ac dis- 
pertita esse dicuntur." 

De Legibus, ii. p. 14, § 36: " Quum multa eximia 
divinaque videntur Athenae tuae peperisse atque in vita 
hominum attulisse, turn nihil melius illis mysteriis quibus 
ex agresti immanique vita exculti ad humanitatem et 
mitigati sumus." 

90. Krinagoras in Anthol. Palat. xi. 42 — 

'6<pp h.v eKelvrj 
Ari/j.7jTpos fj.eyd\as vvKTas idrjs lepuv. 

9 1 . Hibbert Lectures^ p. 291. 

92. Foucart, Associations religieuses, p. 146^ I have 
taken Foucart's reading, ayvo? for aytos. On these words 
see Wobbermin, 39, S9 ff-i ^A9- 

93. Hatch, Hibbert Lectures, 291. 

94. P/iaedo, 69 A. 

95. Republic, 363 c, 365 a. 

96. Leges, 910 c. 

97. Demosthenes, Parapresbeia, §§ 199, 249. 

98. See Foucart, Ass. rel. 169 / 179, and note 15 
above. 

99. Lobeclc, Aglaop/tanms, p. 297: " Non dubitabant 
quin ii turpiter colerentur qui multa turpiter fecisse cre- 
derentur." 

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Jennings, M.A., and W. H. Lowe, M.A. In 2 vols. 2nd 
Edition. Crown Svo. los. 6d. each. 

Isaiah — 

ISAIAH XL. — LXVI. With the Shorter Prophecies allied to iL 
By Matthew Arnold. With Notes. Crown Svo. 5s. 



THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE , 5 

Isaiah — continued. 

A BIBLE- READING FOR SCHOOLS. The Great Prophecy of 
Israel's Restoration (Isaiah xl.-lxvi.) Arranged and Edited for 
Young Learners. By the same. 4th Edition. Pott Svo. is. 

Zechariah — 

THE HEBREW STUDENT'S COMMENTARY ON ZECH- 
ARIAH, Hebrew and LXX. By W. H. Lowe, M.A. Svo. ios. 6d. 

THE NEW TESTAMENT 

THE AKHMIM FRAGMENT OF THE APOCRYPHAL 

GOSPEL OF ST. PETER. By H. B. Swete, D.D. Svo. 5s. net. 

GUARDIAN. — " Cambridge may claim the honour not only of having communicated 

without delay the new discovery to the general public, but also of having furnished 

scholars with the most complete and sober account of the contents, character, and date 

of the Gospel of Peter that has yet appeared." 

EXPOSITORY TIMES.— " It is an edition complete in all respects, full to over- 
flowing, accurate, and serviceable." 

THE SOTERIOLOGY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. By W. 
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THE MESSAGES OF THE BOOKS. Being Discourses and 
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ON A FRESH REVISION OF THE ENGLISH' NEW TESTA- 
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THE UNITY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. By F. D. Maurice. 
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A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF THE CANON 
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THE NEW TESTAMENT IN THE ORIGINAL GREEK. The 
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Hort, D.D. 2 vols. Crown Svo. ids. 6d. each. — Vol. I. 
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[Tke Text in Macmillan Greek Type, 

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ACADEMY. — "We can cordially recommend this as a very handy little volume 
compiled on sound principles." 



6 MACMILLAN AND CO.'S 

The New Testament — continuecL 

GRAMMAR OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. By Prof. F. 
Blass, University of Halle. Authorised English Translation. 8vo. 

[/« the Press. 
THE GOSPELS- 
PHILOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE GOSPELS AND 
THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. By Prof. F. Blass. 
Crown 8vo. [/« the Press. 

THE SYRO-LATIN TEXT OF THE GOSPELS. By the Rev. 
Frederic Henry Chase, D.D. 8vo. 7s. 6d. net. 

Dr. Chase, in his preface, thus explains the object of his book : " The 
present volume is the sequel of an Essay which I published two years ago 
on the Old Syriac Element in the Text of Codex Bezae. The latter, 
primarily an offshoot of a larger work on the Acts on which I am engaged, 
dealt with the Bezan text of that Book. Several critics, whose opinion I 
respect, urged against my conclusions the not unnatural objection, which I 
had fully anticipated in the preface, that I could produce no direct evidence 
for an old Syriac text of the Acts. Convinced that assimilation to Old 
Syriac texts was a predominant factor in the genesis of the Bezan and of 
cognate texts, I felt that it was almost a matter of honour to extend the 
investigation to the Gospels, where ample evidence for Old Syriac readings 
is supphed by the Sinaitic and Curetonian MSS. , by the Arabic Tatian, by 
Ephrem's Commentary on the Diatessaron, and by Aphraat's Quotations." 

TIMES. — "An important and scholarly contribution to New Testament criticism." 

THE COMMON TRADITION OF THE SYNOPTIC GOSPELS, 
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W. G. RusHBROOKE. Crown Svo. 3s. 6d. 
SYNOPTICON : An Exposition of the Common Matter of the Synop- 
tic Gospels. By W. G. RusHBROOKE. Printed in Colours. 4to. 
35s. Indispensable to a Theological Student. 
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE FOUR GOSPELS. 

By Right Rev. Bishop Westcott. 8th Ed. Cr. Svo. los. 6d. 
A SYNOPSIS OF THE GOSPELS IN GREEK AFTER THE 
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THE COMPOSITION OF THE FOUR GOSPELS. By Rev. 
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CAMBRIDGE REVIEW. — "The wonderful force and freshness which we find on 
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years of reverent thought, now brought to light in the clearest, most telling way. . . . 
The book will hardly go unchallenged by the different schools of thought, but all will 
agree in gratitude at least for its vigour and reality ; and there is one short chapter, 
'On the Inspiration of the Gospels,' which even those whom 'criticism' bores will 
read — which most will read and read and re-read, for it brings new assurance 
with it." 

THE LEADING IDEAS OF THE GOSPELS. By W. Alex- 
ander, D.D. Oxon., LL.D. Dul)lin, D.C.L. Oxon., Archbishop of 
Armagh, and Lord Primate of All Ireland. New Edition, Revised 
and Enlarged. Crown Svo. 6s. 
SCOTSMAN. — " The work has in this issue been so altered in revisal and so greatly 



THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 7 

The Gospels — continued. 

enlarged as to be a new book, in which the doctrine formerly set forth in a series of 
sermons has been developed into a well-reasoned theological treatise." 

EXPOSITORY TIMES.— " k delightful suggestion, worked out with skill and 
ever new suggestiveness by the fertile mind into which it had fallen." 

METHODIST RECORDER.—" Not only eloquent and fascinating, but at almost 
every page it provokes thought." 

BRITISH t-t^EEKLV.—" ReaWy a new book._ It sets before the reader with 
delicacy of thought and felicity of language the distinguishing characteristics of the 
several gospels. It is delightful reading. . . . Religious literature does not often 
furnish a book which may so confidently be recommended." 

MANCHESTER EXAMINER.— "Lucid andscho\ar\y . . . characterised by much 
originality of thought." 

Gospel of St. Matthew — 

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. MATTHEW. Greek Text 
as Revised by Bishop Westcott and Dr. Hort. With Intro- 
duction and Notes by Rev. A. Sloman, M.A. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

MANCHESTER GUARDIAN.—" It is sound and helpful, and the brief introduc- 
tion on Hellenistic Greek is particularly good." 

SCHOOLMAS7ER.— "This is just the book to put into the hands of boys whose 
teacher purposes to read with them the Greek of .St. Matthew's Gospel. The introduc- 
tions discuss difficulties in a familiar style, and are not beyond the capacity of the average 
school-boy. . . ." 

Gospel of St. Mark— 

THE GREEK TEXT. With Introduction and Notes. By Rev. 
H. B. Swete, D.D., Regius Professor of Divinity in the 
University of Cambridge. 8vo. [In the Press. 

SCHOOL READINGS IN THE GREEK TESTAMENT. 
Being the Outlines of the Life of our Lord as given by St. Mark, with 
additions from the Text of the other Evangelists. Edited, with Notes 
and Vocabulary, by Rev. A. Calvert, M.A. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Gospel of St. Luke — 

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. LUKE. The Greek Text 
as Revised by Bishop Westcott and Dr. Hort. With Introduction 
and Notes by Rev. J. Bond, M.A. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 
GLASGOW HERALD. — " The notes are short and crisp — suggestive rather than 
exhaustive." 

THE GOSPEL OF THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN. A Course 
of Lectures on the Gospel of St. Luke. By F. D. Maurice. 
Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

Gospel of St. John — 

THE CENTRAL TEACHING OF CHRIST. Being a Study and 
Exposition of St. John, Chapters XIII. to XVII. By Rev. Canon 
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EXPOSITOR Y TIMES. — " Quite recently we have had an exposition by him whom 
many call the greatest expositor living. But Canon Bernard's work is still the work that 
will help the preacher most." 

THE MODERN CHURCH.— " h thoroughly sound and scholarly work." 

METHODIST TIMES.— "It is a magnificent monograph on St. John xiii.— xvii. 

inclusive. It is a noble book — a book to delight the intellect, to stimulate the soul, and 

to refresh the heart . . . not for many a day have we had such a surprise and such a 

delight as we found the first half-hour we stole in to the company of this born expositor." 

THE GOSPEL OF ST. JOHN. By F. D. Maurice. Cr.Svo. 3s. 6d. 



8 MACMILLAN AND CO.'S 

THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES- 
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THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES IN GREEK AND ENGLISH. 
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SA TURD AY REVIEW.— "Wr. Kendall has given us a ver>' useful as well as a 
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BRITISH WEEKLY.— "O-a the whole the book is a valuable addition to New 
Testament literature, being thoroughly up-to-date both in its scholarship and in its 
general information and critical judgment." 

MANCHESTER GUARDIAN.—'' Mr. Rendall is a careful scholar and a thought- 
ful writer, and the student may learn a good deal from his commentary." 

THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. By F. D- Maurice. Cr. 

Svo. 3s. 6d. 
THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Being the Greek Text as 
Revised by Bishop Westcott and Dr. Hort. With E.xplanatory 
Notes by T. E. Page, M.A. Fcap. Svo. 3s. 6d. 
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. The Authorised Version, with Intro- 
duction and Notes, by T. E. Page, M.A., and Rev. A. S. 
Walpole, M.A. Fcap. Svo. 2s. 6d. 
BRITISH WEEKLY.—" Mr. Page's Notes on the Greek Text of the Acts are very 
well known, and are decidedly scholarly and individual. . . . Mr. Page has written an 
introduction which is brief, scholarly, and suggestive." 

SCOTSMAN. — " It is a much more scholarly edition than is usually found prepared 
for use in schools, and yet keeps its learning well within the limits of the needs and the 
capacities of young students of the Bible." 

THE CHURCH OF THE FIRST DAYS. The Church of 
Jerusalem. The Church of the Gentiles. The Church 
of the World. Lectures on the Acts of the Apostles. By 
Very Rev. C. J. Vaughan. Crown Svo. ids. 6d. 

THE EPISTLES of St. Paul— 

ST. PAUL'S EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS. The Greek Text, 
with English Notes. By Very Rev. C. J. Vaughan. 7th Edition. 
Crown Svo. 7s. 6d. 
PROLEGOMENA TO ST. PAUL'S EPISTLES TO THE 
ROMANS AND THE EPHESIANS. By Rev. F. J. A. Hort. 
Crown Svo. 6s. 
Dr. Marcus Dods in the ^oo/wzaw.—" Anything from the pen of Dr. Hort is sure to 
be informative and suggestive, and the present publication bears his mark. . . . There 
is an air of originality about the whole discussion ; the difficulties are candidly faced, and 
the explanations offered appeal to our sense of what is reasonable." 

TIMES. — " Will be welcomed by all theologians as ' an invaluable contribution to the 
study of those Epistles' as the editor of the volume justly calls it." 

DAIL V CHRONICLE. — "The lectures are an important contribution to the study 
of the famous Epistles of which they treat." 

Sr. PAUL'S EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS. A Revised 
Text, with Introduction, Notes, and Dissertations. By Bishop 
Lightfoot. loth Edition. Svo. 12s. 



THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 9 

THE EPISTLES of St. VB.\x\.—co7itimied. 

ST. PAUL'S EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS. A Revised 
Text, with Introduction, Notes, and Dissertations. By the same. 
9th Edition. 8vo. 12s. 

ST. PAUL'S EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS. With transla- 
tion, Paraphrase, and Notes for English Readers. By Very Rev. 
C. J. Vaughan. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

ST. PAUL'S EPISTLES TO THE COLOSSIANS AND TO 
PHILEMON. A Revised Text, with Introductions, etc. By 
Bishop LiGH-TFOOT. 9th Edition. 8vo. 12s. 

THE EPISTLES OF ST. PAUL TO THE EPHESIANS, THE 
COLOSSIANS, AND PHILEMON. With Introductions and 
Notes. By Rev. J. Ll. Davies. 2nd Edition. Svo. 7s. 6d. 

THE EPISTLES OF ST. PAUL. For English Readers. Part I. con- 
taining the First Epistle to the Thessalonians. By Very Rev. C. 
J. Vaughan. 2nd Edition. Svo. Sewed, is. 6d. 

NOTES ON EPISTLES OF ST. PAUL FROM UNPUBLISHED 
COMMENTARIES. By the late J. B. Lightfoot, D.D., 
D.C. L., LL.D., Lord Bishop of Durham. Svo. 12s. 

GUARDIAN. — " It scarcely needs to be said, after the experience of former volumes, 
that the editor has done his part of the work excellently. ... It also certainly needs not 
to-be said that we have in the commentary much valuable contribution to the study of St. 
Paul, and that the whole is marked by the Bishop's well-known characteristics of sound 
scholarship, width of learning, and clear sobriety of judgment." 

SCOTSMAN. — "The editing seems to have been carried through in the most unex- 
ceptional manner, and fragmentary as the work unfortunately is, it will be received as a 
valuable contribution to the understanding of those parts of Scripture with which it 
deals." 

The Epistle of St. James — 

THE EPISTLE OF ST. JAMES. The Greek Text, with Intro- 
duction and Notes. By Rev. Joseph B. Mayor, M.A. 2nd 
Edition. Svo. 14s. net. 

EXPOSITORY TIMES.— "The most complete edition of St. James in the English 
language, and the most serviceable for the student of Greek." 

BOO KM A N. — " Professor Mayor's volume in every part of it gives proof that no time 
or labour has been grudged in mastering this mass of literature, and that in appraising it 
he has exercised the sound judgment of a thoroughly trained scholar and critic. . . . 
The notes are uniformly characterised by thorough scholarship and unfailing sense. The 
notes resemble rather those of Lightfoot than those of Ellicott. ... It is a pleasure to 
welcome a book which does credit to English learning, and which will take, and keep, a 
foremost place in Biblical literature." 

SCOTSMAN. — " It is a work which sums up many others, and to any one who wishes 
to make a thorough study of the Epistle of St. James, it will prove indispensable." 

EXPOSITOR {T)r. Marcus Dous). — " Will long remain the commentary on St. James, 
a storehouse to which all subsequent students of the epistle must be indebted." 

The Epistles of St. John — 

THE EPISTLES OF ST. JOHN. By F. D. Maurice. Crown 
Svo. 3s. 6d. 

THE EPISTLES OF ST. JOHN. The Greek Text, with Notes. 
By Right Rev. Bishop Westcott. 3rd Edition. Svo. 12s. 6d. 



lo MACMILLAN AND CO.'S 

GUARDIAN.—" It contains a new or rather revised text, with careful critical remarks 
and helps ; very copious footnotes on the text ; and after each of the chapters, 
longer and more elaborate notes in treatment of leading or difficult questions, whether in 
respect of reading or theology. ... Dr. Westcott has accumulated round them so much 
matter that, if not new, was forgotten, or generally unobserved, and has thrown so much 
light upon their language, theology, and characteristics. . . . The notes, critical, 
illustrative, and exegetical, which are given beneath the text, are extraordinarily full and 
careful. . . . They exhibit the same minute analysis of every phrase and word, the sanie 
scrupulous weighing of every inflection and variation that characterised Dr. Westcott s 
commentary on the Gospel. . . . There is scarcely a syllable throughout the Epistles 
which is dismissed without having undergone the most anxious interrogation. 

SATURDAY' REVIEW.— "'XhcmQTev/& examine this precious volume the more 
its exceeding richness in spiritual as well as in literary material grows upon the mind.' 

The Epistle to the Hebrews — 

THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS IN GREEK AND 
ENGLISH. With Notes. By Rev. F. Rendall. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. English Text, with Com- 
mentary. By the same. Crown Svo. 7s. 6d. 

THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. With Notes. By Very 
Rev. C. J. Vaughan. Crown Svo. 7s. 6d. 

TIMES.— "The name and reputation of the Dean of LlandaflF are a better recom- 
mendation than we can give of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Greek text, with notes ; 
an edition which represents the results of more than thirty years' experience m the training 
of students for ordination." 

THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. The Greek Text, with 
Notes and Essays. By Right Rev. Bishop Westcott. Svo. 14s. 

GUARDIAN. — " In form this is a companion volume to that upon the Epistles of St. 
John. The type is excellent, the printing careful, the index thorough ; and the volume 
contains a full introduction, followed by the Greek text, with a running commentary, and 
a number of additional notes on verbal and doctrinal points which needed fuller discus- 
sion . . . His conception of inspiration is further illustrated by the treatment of the Old 
Testament in the Epistle, and the additional notes that bear on this pomt deserve very 
careful study. The spirit in which the student should approach the perplexing questions 
of Old Testament criticism could not be better described than it is in the last essay. 

REVELATION— 

THE BOOK OF REVELATIONS. Arranged and Expounded by 
the late Archbishop Benson. Svo. [/« the Press. 

LECTURES ON THE APOCALYPSE. By F. D. Maurice. 
Crown Svo. 3s. 6d. 

LECTURES ON THE APOCALYPSE. By Rev. Prof. W. 
MiLLiGAN. Crown Svo. 5s. 

DISCUSSIONS ON THE APOCALYPSE. By the same. Cr. Svo. 5s. 

SCOTSMAN.— "Th^zz discussions give an interesting and valuable_ account and 
criticism of the present state of theological opinion and research in connection with their 
subject." 

SCOTTISH GUARDIAN.—" The great merit of the book is the patient and skilful 
way in which it has brought the whole discussion down to the present day. . . . The 
result is a volume which many will value highly, and which will not, we think, soon be 
superseded." 



THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE n 

LECTURES ON THE REVELATION OF ST. JOHN. By Very 
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THE BIBLE WORD-BOOK. By W. Aldis Wright, Litt.D., 
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Cbristian Cburcb, Ibistor^ of tbe 

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To this edition have been prefixed short accounts of the writers 
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A HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH DURING THE 
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Sohm (Prof.) — OUTLINES OF CHURCH HISTORY. 
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MANCHESTER GUARDIAN.—" It fully deserves the praise given to it by Pro- 
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sketch nor a confused mass of facts, but a masterly outline,' and it really 'supplies a 
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12 MACMILLAN AND CO.'S 

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CHURCH BELLS.—" We are heartily glad to see this new and handy edition of 
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ENGLISH HISTORICAL REVIEW.—" Will be welcomed alike by students and 
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THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 13 

History of — continued. 

For the benefit of the latter all the Latin pieces have been translated into English. . . . 
It fully de^ierves the hearty imprimatur of the Bishop of Oxford prefixed to it." 

ACADEMY.— "The assurance of the Bishop of Oxford, that ' this is a book which 
will, and indeed must, be received as a great boon by English Churchmen,' is scarcely 
needed. A glance at the list of the documents printed and a little testing of the accuracy 
of their editing will convince us that the volume will be found indispensable by students. 
The book opens with the British Signatories at the Council at Aries, 314 a.d., and 
finishes with the Act of Settlement, 1700. Between these dates 124 documents are 
given, carefully dated, with a running analysis of their contents in the margin, and a 
short historical note prefixed to each. Latin and French documents are translated, and 
the spelling of the English ones is modernised. The translation is executed with 
admirable scholarship, and the editing is in every way satisfactory." 

DAILY CHRONICLE.— ^'- Students of the English Constitution as well as students 
of Church History will find this volume a valuable aid to their researches." 

SCOTTISH GUARDIAN.—" There is no book in existence that contains so much 
original material likely to prove valuable to those who wish to investigate ritual or 
historical questions affecting the English Church." 

Holy Communion — 

THE COMMUNION SERVICE FROM THE BOOK OF 
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FIRST COMMUNION, with Prayers and Devotions for the newly 
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A MANUAL OF INSTRUCTION FOR CONFIRMATION AND 
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same. 32mo. 2s. 

Liturgy — 

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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CREEDS. By Rev. Canon 
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CHURCH QUAR TERLY REVIEW.-" Mr. Maclear's text-books of Bible history 
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Introduction to the Creeds, which we do not hesitate to call admirable. The book 
consists, first, of an historical introduction, occupying 53 pages, then an exposition of 
the twelve articles of the Creed extending to page 299, an appendix containing the texts 
of a considerable number of Creeds, and lastly, three indices which, as far as we have 
tested them, we must pronounce very good. . . . We may add that we know already 
that the book has been used with great advantage in ordinary parochial work." 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ARTICLES OF THE 
CHURCH OF ENGLAND. By Rev. G. F. Maclear, D.D., 
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The Bishop of Salisbury at the Church Congress, spoke of this as " a book which 
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THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 15 

Historical and Biographical — conti7tued. 

Alpine Club, a man of restless mind but always at leisure for the demands of friendship, 
and finding his truest joy in his own home and family. Indeed, one sees that Dr. Hort 
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^bc jfatbere 

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THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 17 

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SATURDAY REVIEIV.—" On the whole, and with all reservations which can 
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THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 19 

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C 



20 MACMILLAN AND CO.'S 

which they use ; to those keeping Christmas, as a contribution to the ever- 
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22 MAC.MILLAN AND CO.'S 

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MANCHESTER GUARDIAN.— "He says what he means, but never more than 
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honest lines may be widely read and its lessons carefully pondered." 



THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 23 

Davies (W.) — THE PILGRIM OF THE INFINITE. A 

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24 MACMILLAN AND CO.'S 

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THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 25 

is well qualified to deliver, seeing that manliness of thought and feeling has been the 
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26 MACMILLAN AND CO.'S 

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THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 27 

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28 MACMILLAN AND CO.'S 

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THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 29 

Milligan (Rev. Prof. W.)— THE RESURRECTION OF OUR 

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THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 31 

Realm of Philosophy: by the Rev. R. E. Bartlett, M. A., Bampton 
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32 MACMILLAN AND CO.'S 

Vaughan (C. J., Dean of Llandaff ) — conti7iued. 

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THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 33 

DAILY CHRONICLE.— ''YWi. whole book recalls men to those witnesses for the 
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utterance." ,• i i t. 

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White (A. D.)— A HISTORY OF THE WARFARE OF 
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34 MACMILLAN & CO.'S THEOLOGICAL CATALOGUE 

TIMES. — " Is certainly one of the most comprehensive, and, in our judgment, one of 
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He has decided opinions, but he always writes temperately, and with transparent truth- 
fulness of intention." 

DAILY CHRONICLE.— "Thit story of the struggle of searchers after truth with 
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in the whole history of mankind. That story has never been better told than by the 
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SERMONS PREACHED IN CLIFTON COLLEGE CHAPEL. 

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This work, a new edition of which has been called for, deals exclusively 
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The subjects are : — Water — Some Properties and Peculiarities of it ; a 
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to Religion — A Fragment ; The Need of giving Higher Biblical Teaching 
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Wood (C. J.) SURVIVALS IN CHRISTIANITY. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

MANCHESTER GUARDIAN.— "Striking, stimulating and suggestive lectures. 
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interesting throughout." 

Printed by R. & R. Clakk, Limited, Edinburgh. 

xviil. 10.2.08. 



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